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      Aqueous Extracts from Tunisian Diplotaxis: Phenol Content, Antioxidant and Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Activities, and Impact of Exposure to Simulated Gastrointestinal Fluids

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          Abstract

          Antioxidants have been considered essential for preventing cell damage by scavenging deleterious free radicals. The consumption of antioxidant-rich plants is associated with a reduced risk of some chronic diseases. This study evaluates the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities of aqueous extracts obtained from different parts of Diplotaxis simplex and Diplotaxis harra from Tunisia. The study also aimed to investigate the action of simulated gastrointestinal juice on antioxidant activities of both extracts. The total phenolic, flavone and flavonol, and flavanone and dihydroflavonol contents were determined by Folin–Ciocalteau, aluminum chloride and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine colorimetric methods, respectively. The metal ion chelating activity, acetylcholinesterase inhibition capacity, and free radical scavenging potential of the extracts towards ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), hydroxyl, superoxide and nitric oxide were also evaluated. The action of simulated gastro-intestinal fluids on the flavone and flavonol content and total antioxidant activity of the flower extracts was surveyed. Extracts from the seeds and flowers of D. simplex and D. harra displayed the highest amounts of phenols (2691.7 and 2694.5 mg Caffeic Acid Equivalent (CAE)/100 mg; 3433.4 and 2647.2 mg CAE/100 mg, respectively) and flavonols/flavones (2144.4 and 2061.1 mg Rutin Equivalent (RE)/100 g; 1922.6 and 1461.1 mg RE/100 g, respectively). The flower and seed extracts exhibited the highest rates of antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities. A decrease in the flavonoid content and antioxidant activity was observed after extract exposure to simulated saliva. Antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities were noted to depend on plant species and plant parts. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion is useful in assessing the bio-accessibility of compounds with biological activities from food. The simulated gastrointestinal fluids influenced the flavonoid concentration and antioxidant activity.

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          Most cited references40

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          Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils: A Short Review

          Essential oils are complex mixtures isolated from aromatic plants which may possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of interest in thye food and cosmetic industries as well as in the human health field. In this work, a review was done on the most recent publications concerning their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. At the same time a survey of the methods generally used for the evaluation of antioxidant activity and some of the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils are also reported.
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            The chemical diversity and distribution of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates among plants.

            Glucosinolates (beta-thioglucoside-N-hydroxysulfates), the precursors of isothiocyanates, are present in sixteen families of dicotyledonous angiosperms including a large number of edible species. At least 120 different glucosinolates have been identified in these plants, although closely related taxonomic groups typically contain only a small number of such compounds. Glucosinolates and/or their breakdown products have long been known for their fungicidal, bacteriocidal, nematocidal and allelopathic properties and have recently attracted intense research interest because of their cancer chemoprotective attributes. Numerous reviews have addressed the occurrence of glucosinolates in vegetables, primarily the family Brassicaceae (syn. Cruciferae; including Brassica spp and Raphanus spp). The major focus of much previous research has been on the negative aspects of these compounds because of the prevalence of certain "antinutritional" or goitrogenic glucosinolates in the protein-rich defatted meal from widely grown oilseed crops and in some domesticated vegetable crops. There is, however, an opposite and positive side of this picture represented by the therapeutic and prophylactic properties of other "nutritional" or "functional" glucosinolates. This review addresses the complex array of these biologically active and chemically diverse compounds many of which have been identified during the past three decades in other families. In addition to the Brassica vegetables, these glucosinolates have been found in hundreds of species, many of which are edible or could provide substantial quantities of glucosinolates for isolation, for biological evaluation, and potential application as chemoprotective or other dietary or pharmacological agents.
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              Antioxidant activity and constituents of propolis collected in various areas of China

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Antioxidants (Basel)
                Antioxidants (Basel)
                antioxidants
                Antioxidants
                MDPI
                2076-3921
                02 April 2016
                June 2016
                : 5
                : 2
                : 12
                Affiliations
                [1 ]LR11-ES31 Laboratory of Biotechnology and Valorisation of Bio-GeoRessources (BVBGR), Higher Institute of Biotechnology of Sidi Thabet (ISBST), University of Manouba, Biotechpole Sidi Thabet, Ariana 2020, Tunisia; nada.bahloul@ 123456gmail.com (N.B.); bel-sana@ 123456hotmail.fr (S.B.); cherif.ameur@ 123456gmail.com (A.C.); w_mnif@ 123456yahoo.fr (W.M.)
                [2 ]Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, University of Carthage, Jarzouna-Bizerte 7021, Tunisia
                [3 ]Laboratory of Physiology-Pharmacology-Environmental Health, Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mehraz, BP 1796 Atlas, University Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdallah, Fez 30 000, Morocco; aazzasmail@ 123456ymail.com
                [4 ]Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Center for Biomedical Research, Universidade do Algarve, Edf. 8, Campus de Gambelas, Faro 8005-139, Portugal; mfaleiro@ 123456ualg.pt
                [5 ]Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, MeditBio, Edif. 8, Campus de Gambelas, Faro 8005-139, Portugal; mantunes@ 123456ualg.pt
                [6 ]Faculty of Sciences and Arts in Balgarn PO BOX 60 Balgarn, Bisha University, Sabt Al Alaya 61985, Saudi Arabia
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: mgracamiguel@ 123456gmail.com ; Tel.: +351-289-800-100
                Article
                antioxidants-05-00012
                10.3390/antiox5020012
                4931533
                27049399
                f63be60b-b230-491d-9447-c038df069a3b
                © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 27 January 2016
                : 25 March 2016
                Categories
                Article

                diplotaxis harra,diplotaxis simplex,biological activities,digestion

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