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      Identification of PPARγ ligands with One-dimensional Drug Profile Matching

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          Computational molecular database screening helps to decrease the time and resources needed for drug development. Reintroduction of generic drugs by second medical use patents also contributes to cheaper and faster drug development processes. We screened, in silico, the Food and Drug Administration-approved generic drug database by means of the One-dimensional Drug Profile Matching (oDPM) method in order to find potential peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists. The PPARγ action of the selected generics was also investigated by in vitro and in vivo experiments.

          Materials and methods

          The in silico oDPM method was used to determine the binding potency of 1,255 generics to 149 proteins collected. In vitro PPARγ activation was determined by measuring fatty acid-binding protein 4/adipocyte protein gene expression in a Mono Mac 6 cell line. The in vivo insulin sensitizing effect of the selected compound (nitazoxanide; 50–200 mg/kg/day over 8 days; n = 8) was established in type 2 diabetic rats by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamping.

          Results

          After examining the closest neighbors of each of the reference set’s members and counting their most abundant neighbors, ten generic drugs were selected with oDPM. Among them, four enhanced fatty acid-binding protein/adipocyte protein gene expression in the Mono Mac 6 cell line, but only bromfenac and nitazoxanide showed dose-dependent actions. Induction by nitazoxanide was higher than by bromfenac. Nitazoxanide lowered fasting blood glucose levels and improved insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic rats.

          Conclusion

          We demonstrated that the oDPM method can predict previously unknown therapeutic effects of generic drugs. Nitazoxanide can be the prototype chemical structure of the new generation of insulin sensitizers.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Glucose clamp technique: a method for quantifying insulin secretion and resistance.

          Methods for the quantification of beta-cell sensitivity to glucose (hyperglycemic clamp technique) and of tissue sensitivity to insulin (euglycemic insulin clamp technique) are described. Hyperglycemic clamp technique. The plasma glucose concentration is acutely raised to 125 mg/dl above basal levels by a priming infusion of glucose. The desired hyperglycemic plateau is subsequently maintained by adjustment of a variable glucose infusion, based on the negative feedback principle. Because the plasma glucose concentration is held constant, the glucose infusion rate is an index of glucose metabolism. Under these conditions of constant hyperglycemia, the plasma insulin response is biphasic with an early burst of insulin release during the first 6 min followed by a gradually progressive increase in plasma insulin concentration. Euglycemic insulin clamp technique. The plasma insulin concentration is acutely raised and maintained at approximately 100 muU/ml by a prime-continuous infusion of insulin. The plasma glucose concentration is held constant at basal levels by a variable glucose infusion using the negative feedback principle. Under these steady-state conditions of euglycemia, the glucose infusion rate equals glucose uptake by all the tissues in the body and is therefore a measure of tissue sensitivity to exogenous insulin.
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            A semiempirical free energy force field with charge-based desolvation.

            The authors describe the development and testing of a semiempirical free energy force field for use in AutoDock4 and similar grid-based docking methods. The force field is based on a comprehensive thermodynamic model that allows incorporation of intramolecular energies into the predicted free energy of binding. It also incorporates a charge-based method for evaluation of desolvation designed to use a typical set of atom types. The method has been calibrated on a set of 188 diverse protein-ligand complexes of known structure and binding energy, and tested on a set of 100 complexes of ligands with retroviral proteases. The force field shows improvement in redocking simulations over the previous AutoDock3 force field.
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              A new rat model of type 2 diabetes: the fat-fed, streptozotocin-treated rat.

              This study was initiated to develop an animal model of type 2 diabetes in a non-obese, outbred rat strain that replicates the natural history and metabolic characteristics of the human syndrome and is suitable for pharmaceutical research. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 31), 7 weeks old, were fed normal chow (12% of calories as fat), or high-fat diet (40% of calories as fat) for 2 weeks and then injected with streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg intravenously). Before STZ injection, fat-fed rats had similar glucose concentrations to chow-fed rats, but significantly higher insulin, free fatty acid (FFA), and triglyceride (TG) concentrations (P < .01 to .0001). Plasma insulin concentrations in response to oral glucose (2 g/kg) were increased 2-fold by fat feeding (P < .01), and adipocyte glucose clearance under maximal insulin stimulation was significantly reduced (P < .001), suggesting that fat feeding induced insulin resistance. STZ injection increased glucose (P < .05), insulin (P < .05), FFA (P < .05), and TG (P < .0001) concentrations in fat-fed rats (Fat-fed/STZ rats) compared with chow-fed, STZ-injected rats (Chow-fed/STZ rats). Fat-fed/STZ rats were not insulin deficient compared with normal chow-fed rats, but had hyperglycemia and a somewhat higher insulin response to an oral glucose challenge (both P < .05). In addition, insulin-stimulated adipocyte glucose clearance was reduced in Fat-fed/STZ rats compared with both chow-fed and Chow-fed/STZ rats (P < .001). Finally, Fat-fed/STZ rats were sensitive to the glucose lowering effects of metformin and troglitazone. In conclusion, Fat-fed/STZ rats provide a novel animal model for type 2 diabetes, simulates the human syndrome, and is suitable for the testing of antidiabetic compounds.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2013
                02 September 2013
                : 7
                : 917-928
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
                [2 ]Drugmotif, Ltd, Veresegyház, Hungary
                [3 ]Printnet, Ltd, Budapest, Hungary
                [4 ]Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary
                [5 ]Molecular Biophysics Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences – Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary
                [6 ]Cera-Med Ltd, Debrecen-Józsa, Hungary
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Barna Peitl, Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, University of Debrecen, H-4032, Nagyerdei Boulevard 98, Debrecen, Hungary, Tel +36 52 411 717 560 109, Fax +36 52 427 899, Email barna.peitl@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                dddt-7-917
                10.2147/DDDT.S47173
                3770887
                24039401
                © 2013 Kovács et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Ltd, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Ltd, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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