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      Transcatheter Closure of Atrial Septal Defects with Cardiac Computed Tomography Sizing: Eight-Year Single-Center Practice

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          Introduction: An accurate evaluation of atrial septal defect (ASD) is important for the success of interventional treatment. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) has unique advantages for ASD assessment, although transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) remains the accepted method. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of transcatheter closure of ASD with cardiac CT sizing but without TEE measurement. Methods: Among 134 patients undergoing transcatheter closure, 13 underwent TEE in addition to a cardiac CT examination, and 121 underwent only cardiac CT. Propensity score matching was used to analyze the outcomes of the groups treated with (group 1) or without (group 2) TEE examinations. The success rate and complications among the 121 ASD patients with only cardiac CT sizing were recorded and analyzed. The maximal diameters of the defects remeasured on CT images were compared to the echocardiography results and correlated with the device size by Student t test and Pearson’s linear regression analysis, respectively. Results: No significant differences ( p > 0.05) were found between groups 1 and 2 in the success rate, complications, or ratio of the device size to the maximum diameter of the defect measured by cardiac CT. In group 1, the maximum diameters of the ASD derived from cardiac CT and TEE were comparable (22.08 ± 9.68 vs. 21.50 ± 10.24; p = 0.351). The success rate among the 121 patients who underwent transcatheter closure with only cardiac CT sizing was 99.2%; however, within 1 month of follow-up, 2 patients had arrhythmia, 1 patient had residual shunting, 1 patient had an infection, and 1 patient had a hematoma, but all patients recovered within a short time. Conclusions: Cardiac CT seems to be comparable to TEE in the assessment of ASD, and transcatheter closure of ASD based on CT sizing alone is safe and feasible.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Safety of transesophageal echocardiography. A multicenter survey of 10,419 examinations.

          During the past few years, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has been increasingly used in clinical cardiology; data concerning the practicability and safety of the technique, however, are rare. This report analyzes the experience of 15 European centers performing TEE studies for at least 1 year. At the time of this survey, 10,419 TEE examinations had been attempted or performed in these institutions. These TEE examinations were carried out by 54 physicians, 53.7% of whom had been trained in endoscopic techniques. Within the same time period, 160,431 precordial echocardiographic examinations were performed in the 15 institutions; the ratio between TEE and transthoracic studies averaged 9.03 +/- 6.4% (range of the 15 centers, 1.4-23.6%). Of the 10,419 patients, 9,240 (88.7%) were conscious inpatients or outpatients at the time of the TEE examination; the vast majority of the conscious patients did not receive intravenous sedation before TEE. In 201 cases (1.9%), insertion of the TEE probe was unsuccessfully attempted because of a lack of patient cooperation and/or operator experience (98.5%) or because of anatomical reasons (1.5%). In 90 of 10,218 TEE studies (0.88%) with successful probe insertion, the examination had to be interrupted because of the patient's intolerance of the echoscope (65 cases); because of pulmonary (eight cases), cardiac (eight cases), or bleeding complications (two cases); or for other reasons (seven cases). One of the bleeding complications resulted from a malignant lung tumor with esophageal infiltration and was fatal (mortality rate, 0.0098%). This multicenter survey documents that TEE studies are associated with an acceptable low risk when used by experienced operators under proper safety conditions.
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            Transcatheter device closure of atrial septal defects: a safety review.

            This review discusses the current safety issues related to U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved atrial septal defect devices and proposes a potential avenue to gather additional safety data including factors, which may be involved in device erosion.
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              Embolization and retrieval of the Amplatzer septal occluder.

               R. Moore,  Daniel Levi (2004)
              Embolization and percutaneous retrieval of the Amplatzer septal occluder (ASO) after release have been reported. However, the incidence, the causes of embolization, and the methods for effective retrieval have not been systematically described. In a survey of the ASO company-designated proctors, the incidence of ASO embolization in this group's experience was 0.55% (21 embolizations in 3824 device placements) with a wide range of patient demographics, atrial septal defect (ASD) sizes, and device sizes. Most embolizations occurred because of inadequate rim or undersized devices. Of the 21 embolizations, 15 of the devices were retrieved percutaneously with a gooseneck snare without morbidity or mortality. Six were retrieved at surgery. Of the 21 patients, 12 had ASO closure of their ASDs, and 9 had surgical ASD closure. In vitro, all devices could be retrieved with sheathes 2 Fr sizes larger than their recommended delivery sheath. Any device larger than 26 mm could be retrieved with its delivery sheath. The ability to pull the snared button into a sheath was variable and was assisted by pulling the device from above with a bioptome and by using a rigid notched sheath. Because the incidence of ASO embolization is about 1 in 200 in the most experienced hands, all operators should be prepared with the techniques and equipment required for percutaneous ASO retrieval. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                October 2020
                19 August 2020
                : 145
                : 10
                : 654-662
                aThe Second Clinical Medical College, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China
                bDepartment of Cardiovascular Medicine, Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital, People’s Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, China
                Author notes
                *Lihong Wang, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital, 158 Shangtang Road, Xiacheng, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310000 (China), wanglhnew@126.com
                508650 Cardiology 2020;145:654–662
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, Pages: 9
                Congenital Heart Disease: Research Article


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