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      Rapid Pituitary Apoplexy Regression: What Is the Time Course of Clot Resolution?

      1 , 2 , *

      Case Reports in Radiology

      Hindawi Publishing Corporation

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          Abstract

          A 29-year-old male patient with a functioning pituitary macroadenoma is discussed. The pituitary mass was detected by MRI after the patient presented with sudden onset of headache, suggestive of an apoplectic event. The headache resolved with analgesic medications. Within a follow-up period of one week, the pituitary mass had spontaneously regressed to nearly half its original size without any therapy. The patient never reported any visual complaints and displayed no signs of hypopituitarism. Elevated prolactin levels were present. Seven weeks after the initial event, the pituitary mass showed continued regression on MRI. Prolactin levels remained elevated. This case provides a unique look at the rapid spontaneous regression of mass effect that may occur following apoplexy of a pituitary adenoma.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Classical pituitary apoplexy: clinical features, management and outcome.

          The term classical pituitary apoplexy describes a clinical syndrome characterized by sudden headache, vomiting, visual impairment and meningismus caused by the rapid enlargement of a pituitary adenoma usually due to haemorrhagic infarction of the tumour. Most published reports looking at the clinical features and management of pituitary apoplexy have not differentiated between patients with clinical and subclinical apoplexy, the latter diagnosed at surgery. Furthermore, little is reported on the clinical outcome, in particular visual and endocrinological, and the role of radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to observe not only the clinical presentation but also the possible predisposing events, investigations, management, clinical outcome as well as the role of radiotherapy in patients presenting with classical pituitary apoplexy. In a retrospective analysis 1985-96, the medical records of 21 male and 14 female patients (mean age 49.8 years, range 30-74) with classical pituitary apoplexy were reviewed. This represents all patients seen with this condition over the stated period. In all patients, pre- and post- operative measurements were made of FT4, FT3, TSH, PRL, LH, FSH, cortisol (0900 h), GH, oestradiol (females) and testosterone (males). Pituitary imaging was by computerized tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or both. Patients were followed for up to 11 years (mean 6.3 years: range 0.5-11). Headache (97%) was the commonest presenting symptom, followed by nausea (80%) and a reduction of visual fields (71%). Hypertension, defined as a systolic > 160 mmHg and/or a diastolic > 90 mmHg, was seen in 26% of patients. MRI correctly identified pituitary haemorrhage in 88% (n = 7), but CT scanning identified haemorrhage in only 21% (n = 6). By immunostaining criteria, null-cell adenomas were the most common tumour type (61%). Transsphenoidal surgery resulted in improvement in visual acuity in 86%. Complete restoration of visual acuity occurred in all patients operated on within 8 days but only in 46% of patients operated on after this time (9-34 days). Long-term steroid or thyroid hormone replacement was necessary in 58% and 45% of patients, respectively. Of the male patients, 43% required testosterone replacement, and long-term desmopressin therapy was required in 6%. Only two patients (6%) with tumour recurrence after transsphenoidal surgery for the initial apoplectic event, subsequently required radiotherapy. In classical pituitary apoplexy, headache is the commonest presenting symptom and hypertension may be an important predisposing factor. MRI is the imaging method of choice. Transsphenoidal surgery is safe and effective. It is indicated if there are associated abnormalities of visual acuity or visual fields because, when performed within 8 days, it resulted in significantly greater improvement in visual acuity and fields than if surgery was performed after this time. Radiotherapy is not indicated immediately as the risk of tumour recurrence is small, but careful follow-up initially with annual imaging is indicated in this group.
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            Pituitary tumor apoplexy: characteristics, treatment, and outcomes.

            Pituitary tumor apoplexy is an uncommon event heralded by abrupt onset of severe headache, restriction of visual fields, deterioration of visual acuity, and weakness of ocular motility frequently coupled with clinical indications of decreased endocrine function. Hemorrhage into or necrosis of a preexisting sellar mass, usually a pituitary macroadenoma, produces an expansion of sellar contents. Compression of adjacent structures elicits the variable expression of symptoms referable to displacement of the optic nerves and chiasm and impingement of the third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerves. Damage to or destruction of the anterior pituitary leads to multiple acute and/or chronic hormone deficiencies in many patients. Medical management may be used in rare cases in which the signs and symptoms are mild and restricted to meningismus or ophthalmoplegia deemed to be stable. In patients with visual or oculomotor lability or an altered level of consciousness, expeditious surgical decompression, accomplished most commonly through a transsphenoidal approach, should be performed to save life and vision and to optimize the chance of regaining or maintaining pituitary function.
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              Pathology of the human pituitary adenomas

              This article describes pertinent aspects of histochemical and molecular changes of the human pituitary adenomas. The article outlines individual tumor groups with general, specific and molecular findings. The discussion further extends to the unusual adenomas or carcinomas. The description in this article are pertinent not only for the practicing pathologists who are in the position of making proper diagnosis, but also for the pituitary research scientists who engage in solving basic problems in pituitary neoplasms by histochemistry and molecular biology.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Case Rep Radiol
                Case Rep Radiol
                CRIRA
                Case Reports in Radiology
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2090-6862
                2090-6870
                2015
                15 March 2015
                : 2015
                Affiliations
                1College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, DC 20059, USA
                2Department of Neurological Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
                Author notes
                *Jamie J. Van Gompel: vangompel.jamie@ 123456mayo.edu

                Academic Editor: Ruben Dammers

                Article
                10.1155/2015/268974
                4377378
                Copyright © 2015 D. L. Jackson and J. J. Van Gompel.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Case Report

                Radiology & Imaging

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