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      The current status of opisthorchiasis and clonorchiasis in the Mekong Basin.

      Parasitology International

      Animals, Bile Duct Neoplasms, epidemiology, parasitology, Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic, Cholangiocarcinoma, Clonorchiasis, prevention & control, transmission, Clonorchis sinensis, growth & development, Environment, Humans, Incidence, Mekong Valley, Opisthorchiasis, Opisthorchis, Prevalence, Species Specificity

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          Abstract

          This review highlights the current status and control of liver fluke infections in the Mekong Basin countries where Opisthorchis and Clonorchis are highly endemic. Updated data on prevalence and distribution have been summarized from presentations in the "96 Years of Opisthorchiasis. International Congress of Liver Flukes". It is disturbing that despite treatment and control programs have been in place for decades, all countries of the Lower Mekong Basin are still highly endemic with O. viverrini and/or C. sinensis as well as alarmingly high levels of CCA incidence. A common pattern that is emerging in each country is the difference in transmission of O. viverrini between lowlands which have high prevalence versus highlands which have low prevalence. This seems to be associated with wetlands, flooding patterns and human movement and settlement. A more concerted effort from all community, educational, public health and government sectors is necessary to successfully combat this fatal liver disease of the poor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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          Journal
          21893213
          3836690
          10.1016/j.parint.2011.08.014

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