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      Iron as a Therapeutic Target in HFE-Related Hemochromatosis: Usual and Novel Aspects

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          Abstract

          Genetic hemochromatosis is an iron overload disease that is mainly related to the C282Y mutation in the HFE gene. This gene controls the expression of hepcidin, a peptide secreted in plasma by the liver and regulates systemic iron distribution. Homozygous C282Y mutation induces hepcidin deficiency, leading to increased circulating transferrin saturation, and ultimately, iron accumulation in organs such as the liver, pancreas, heart, and bone. Iron in excess may induce or favor the development of complications such as cirrhosis, liver cancer, diabetes, heart failure, hypogonadism, but also complaints such as asthenia and disabling arthritis. Iron depletive treatment mainly consists of venesections that permit the removal of iron contained in red blood cells and the subsequent mobilization of stored iron in order to synthesize hemoglobin for new erythrocytes. It is highly efficient in removing excess iron and preventing most of the complications associated with excess iron in the body. However, this treatment does not target the biological mechanisms involved in the iron metabolism disturbance. New treatments based on the increase of hepcidin levels, by using hepcidin mimetics or inducers, or inhibitors of the iron export activity of ferroportin protein that is the target of hepcidin, if devoid of significant secondary effects, should be useful to better control iron parameters and symptoms, such as arthritis.

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          Most cited references 86

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          Positional cloning of zebrafish ferroportin1 identifies a conserved vertebrate iron exporter.

          Defects in iron absorption and utilization lead to iron deficiency and overload disorders. Adult mammals absorb iron through the duodenum, whereas embryos obtain iron through placental transport. Iron uptake from the intestinal lumen through the apical surface of polarized duodenal enterocytes is mediated by the divalent metal transporter, DMTi. A second transporter has been postulated to export iron across the basolateral surface to the circulation. Here we have used positional cloning to identify the gene responsible for the hypochromic anaemia of the zebrafish mutant weissherbst. The gene, ferroportin1, encodes a multiple-transmembrane domain protein, expressed in the yolk sac, that is a candidate for the elusive iron exporter. Zebrafish ferroportin1 is required for the transport of iron from maternally derived yolk stores to the circulation and functions as an iron exporter when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Human Ferroportin1 is found at the basal surface of placental syncytiotrophoblasts, suggesting that it also transports iron from mother to embryo. Mammalian Ferroportin1 is expressed at the basolateral surface of duodenal enterocytes and could export cellular iron into the circulation. We propose that Ferroportin1 function may be perturbed in mammalian disorders of iron deficiency or overload.
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            LEAP-1, a novel highly disulfide-bonded human peptide, exhibits antimicrobial activity.

            We report the isolation and characterization of a novel human peptide with antimicrobial activity, termed LEAP-1 (liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide). Using a mass spectrometric assay detecting cysteine-rich peptides, a 25-residue peptide containing four disulfide bonds was identified in human blood ultrafiltrate. LEAP-1 expression was predominantly detected in the liver, and, to a much lower extent, in the heart. In radial diffusion assays, Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus carnosus, and Gram-negative Neisseria cinerea as well as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae dose-dependently exhibited sensitivity upon treatment with synthetic LEAP-1. The discovery of LEAP-1 extends the known families of mammalian peptides with antimicrobial activity by its novel disulfide motif and distinct expression pattern.
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              A novel duodenal iron-regulated transporter, IREG1, implicated in the basolateral transfer of iron to the circulation.

              Iron absorption by the duodenal mucosa is initiated by uptake of ferrous Fe(II) iron across the brush border membrane and culminates in transfer of the metal across the basolateral membrane to the portal vein circulation by an unknown mechanism. We describe here the isolation and characterization of a novel cDNA (Ireg1) encoding a duodenal protein that is localized to the basolateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells. Ireg1 mRNA and protein expression are increased under conditions of increased iron absorption, and the 5' UTR of the Ireg1 mRNA contains a functional iron-responsive element (IRE). IREG1 stimulates iron efflux following expression in Xenopus oocytes. We conclude that IREG1 represents the long-sought duodenal iron export protein and is upregulated in the iron overload disease, hereditary hemochromatosis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Pharmaceuticals (Basel)
                Pharmaceuticals (Basel)
                pharmaceuticals
                Pharmaceuticals
                MDPI
                1424-8247
                26 November 2018
                December 2018
                : 11
                : 4
                Affiliations
                INSERM, Univ Rennes, INRA, CHU Rennes, Institut NUMECAN (Nutrition Metabolisms and Cancer), F-35033 Rennes, France; thibault.cavey@ 123456chu-rennes.fr (T.C.); francois.robin@ 123456chu-rennes.fr (F.R.); moussa.kenawi@ 123456univ-rennes1.fr (M.K.); pascal.guggenbuhl@ 123456univ-rennes1.fr (P.G.); pierre.brissot@ 123456univ-rennes1.fr (P.B.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: olivier.loreal@ 123456univ-rennes1.fr ; Tel: +33-22-323-3865
                Article
                pharmaceuticals-11-00131
                10.3390/ph11040131
                6315470
                30486249
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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