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      The adaptation challenge in the Arctic

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      Nature Climate Change

      Springer Nature

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          Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability

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            Maladaptation

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              Transformational adaptation when incremental adaptations to climate change are insufficient.

              All human-environment systems adapt to climate and its natural variation. Adaptation to human-induced change in climate has largely been envisioned as increments of these adaptations intended to avoid disruptions of systems at their current locations. In some places, for some systems, however, vulnerabilities and risks may be so sizeable that they require transformational rather than incremental adaptations. Three classes of transformational adaptations are those that are adopted at a much larger scale, that are truly new to a particular region or resource system, and that transform places and shift locations. We illustrate these with examples drawn from Africa, Europe, and North America. Two conditions set the stage for transformational adaptation to climate change: large vulnerability in certain regions, populations, or resource systems; and severe climate change that overwhelms even robust human use systems. However, anticipatory transformational adaptation may be difficult to implement because of uncertainties about climate change risks and adaptation benefits, the high costs of transformational actions, and institutional and behavioral actions that tend to maintain existing resource systems and policies. Implementing transformational adaptation requires effort to initiate it and then to sustain the effort over time. In initiating transformational adaptation focusing events and multiple stresses are important, combined with local leadership. In sustaining transformational adaptation, it seems likely that supportive social contexts and the availability of acceptable options and resources for actions are key enabling factors. Early steps would include incorporating transformation adaptation into risk management and initiating research to expand the menu of innovative transformational adaptations.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Climate Change
                Nature Clim Change
                Springer Nature
                1758-678X
                1758-6798
                December 2015
                December 1 2015
                : 5
                : 12
                : 1046-1053
                10.1038/nclimate2723
                © 2015

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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