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      Cluster analysis of karyotype similarity coefficients in Epimedium (Berberidaceae): insights in the systematics and evolution

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          Abstract

          In order to evaluate the genome evolution and systematics, karyotype analysis of mitotic metaphase chromosomes in 51 taxa of Epimedium and two species of Vancouveria was conducted. The 53 taxa were clustered, based on their karyotype similarity coefficients. Results showed that the 53 taxa studied were all diploid with 12 chromosomes (2 n = 2 x = 12). Each taxon had one pair of satellites located on pair I of homologous chromosomes. Moreover, the karyotype types of the 53 taxa studied were all type 1A or 2A of Stebbins. It can be concluded that the karyotypes between species are indeed very similar and the genome of Epimedium was conservative in evolution. The cluster analysis of karyotype similarity coefficients could provide valuable clues for the systematics and taxonomy of Epimedium . Results of the cluster analysis strongly supported the previous taxonomic division of E. subg. Rhizophyllum and E. subg. Epimedium . The results also showed that the interspecific relationship was closely correlated with geographical distribution in E. subg. Epimedium and the taxa native to east Asia had the highest genetic diversity in Epimedium . Finally, the origin of the modern geographical distribution of Epimedium was inferred. Results of the present study have significant scientific values in further studies on resource utilisation, taxonomy and phylogeny in Epimedium .

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          Most cited references 38

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          The Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences of Five Epimedium Species: Lights into Phylogenetic and Taxonomic Analyses

          Epimedium L. is a phylogenetically and economically important genus in the family Berberidaceae. We here sequenced the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes of four Epimedium species using Illumina sequencing technology via a combination of de novo and reference-guided assembly, which was also the first comprehensive cp genome analysis on Epimedium combining the cp genome sequence of E. koreanum previously reported. The five Epimedium cp genomes exhibited typical quadripartite and circular structure that was rather conserved in genomic structure and the synteny of gene order. However, these cp genomes presented obvious variations at the boundaries of the four regions because of the expansion and contraction of the inverted repeat (IR) region and the single-copy (SC) boundary regions. The trnQ-UUG duplication occurred in the five Epimedium cp genomes, which was not found in the other basal eudicotyledons. The rapidly evolving cp genome regions were detected among the five cp genomes, as well as the difference of simple sequence repeats (SSR) and repeat sequence were identified. Phylogenetic relationships among the five Epimedium species based on their cp genomes showed accordance with the updated system of the genus on the whole, but reminded that the evolutionary relationships and the divisions of the genus need further investigation applying more evidences. The availability of these cp genomes provided valuable genetic information for accurately identifying species, taxonomy and phylogenetic resolution and evolution of Epimedium, and assist in exploration and utilization of Epimedium plants.
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            Cytology and Cytogenetics as a Fundamental Taxonomic Resource for the 20th and 21st Centuries

             CLIVE STACE (2000)
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              Chloroplast DNA Restriction Site Variation and Phylogeny of the Berberidaceae

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                PhytoKeys
                PhytoKeys
                3
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:F7FCE910-8E78-573F-9C77-7788555F8AAD
                PhytoKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2011
                1314-2003
                2020
                15 September 2020
                : 161
                : 11-26
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Institute of Karst Research, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001, China Guizhou Normal University Guiyang China
                [2 ] National Engineering Research Center for Karst Rocky Desertification Control, Guiyang 550001, China National Engineering Research Center for Karst Rocky Desertification Control Guiyang China
                [3 ] Guizhou Engineering Laboratory for Karst Rocky Desertification Control and Derivative Industry, Guiyang, Guizhou 550001, China Guizhou Engineering Laboratory for Karst Rocky Desertification Control and Derivative Industry Guiyang China
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Mao-Yin Sheng ( shmoy@ 123456163.com )

                Academic editor: M. Pellegrini

                Article
                51046
                10.3897/phytokeys.161.51046
                7508920
                Lin-Jiao Wang, Meng-Di Gao, Mao-Yin Sheng, Jie Yin

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                Guizhou Provincial Science and Technology Department Guizhou Provincial Education Department
                Categories
                Research Article
                Berberidaceae
                Biogeography
                Evolutionary Biology
                Karyosystematics
                Cenozoic
                Asia
                World

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