8
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      P2Y 12 and P2Y 13 receptors involved in ADPβs induced the release of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α from cultured dorsal horn microglia

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Objective

          P2 receptors have been implicated in the release of neurotransmitter and pro-inflammatory cytokines due to their response to neuroexcitatory substances in the microglia. Dorsal horn P2Y 12 and P2Y 13 receptors are involved in the development of pain behavior induced by peripheral nerve injury. However, it is not known whether P2Y 12 and P2Y 13 receptors activation is associated with the expression and the release of interleukin-1B (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in cultured dorsal spinal cord microglia. For this reason, we examined the effects of ADPβs (ADP analog) on the expression and the release of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α.

          Methods and results

          In this study, we observed the effect of P2Y receptor agonist ADPβs on the expression and release of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α by using real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ADPβs induced the increased expression of Iba-1, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α at the level of messenger RNA (mRNA). ADPβs-evoked increase in Iba-1, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression was inhibited only partially by P2Y 12 receptor antagonist MRS2395 or P2Y 13 receptor antagonist MRS2211, respectively. Similarly, ADPβs-evoked release of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α was inhibited only partially by MRS2395 or MRS2211. Furthermore, ADPβs-evoked increased expression of Iba-1, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA, and release of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were nearly all blocked after co-administration of MRS2395 plus MRS2179. Further evidence indicated that P2Y 12 and P2Y 13 receptor-evoked increased gene expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were inhibited by Y-27632 (ROCK inhibitor), SB203580 (P38MAPK inhibitor) and PDTC (NF-κb inhibitor), respectively. Subsequently, P2Y 12 and P2Y 13 receptor-evoked release of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, were also inhibited by Y-27632, SB203580 and PDTC, respectively.

          Conclusion

          These observations suggest that P2Y 12 and P2Y 13 receptor-evoked gene expression and release of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α are associated with ROCK/P38MAPK/NF-κb signaling pathway.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 66

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Altered cytokine production in mice lacking P2X(7) receptors.

          The P2X(7) receptor (P2X(7)R) is an ATP-gated ion channel expressed by monocytes and macrophages. To directly address the role of this receptor in interleukin (IL)-1 beta post-translational processing, we have generated a P2X(7)R-deficient mouse line. P2X(7)R(-/-) macrophages respond to lipopolysaccharide and produce levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and pro-IL-1 beta comparable with those generated by wild-type cells. In response to ATP, however, pro-IL-1 beta produced by the P2X(7)R(-/-) cells is not externalized or activated by caspase-1. Nigericin, an alternate secretion stimulus, promotes release of 17-kDa IL-1 beta from P2X(7)R(-/-) macrophages. In response to in vivo lipopolysaccharide injection, both wild-type and P2X(7)R(-/-) animals display increases in peritoneal lavage IL-6 levels but no detectable IL-1. Subsequent ATP injection to wild-type animals promotes an increase in IL-1, which in turn leads to additional IL-6 production; similar increases did not occur in ATP-treated, LPS-primed P2X(7)R(-/-) animals. Absence of the P2X(7)R thus leads to an inability of peritoneal macrophages to release IL-1 in response to ATP. As a result of the IL-1 deficiency, in vivo cytokine signaling cascades are impaired in P2X(7)R-deficient animals. Together these results demonstrate that P2X(7)R activation can provide a signal that leads to maturation and release of IL-1 beta and initiation of a cytokine cascade.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: found
            Is Open Access

            Neuropathic pain and cytokines: current perspectives

            Neuropathic pain represents a major problem in clinical medicine because it causes debilitating suffering and is largely resistant to currently available analgesics. A characteristic of neuropathic pain is abnormal response to somatic sensory stimulation. Thus, patients suffering peripheral neuropathies may experience pain caused by stimuli which are normally nonpainful, such as simple touching of the skin or by changes in temperature, as well as exaggerated responses to noxious stimuli. Convincing evidence suggests that this hypersensitivity is the result of pain remaining centralized. In particular, at the first pain synapse in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, the gain of neurons is increased and neurons begin to be activated by innocuous inputs. In recent years, it has become appreciated that a remote damage in the peripheral nervous system results in neuronal plasticity and changes in microglial and astrocyte activity, as well as infiltration of macrophages and T cells, which all contribute to central sensitization. Specifically, the release of pronociceptive factors such as cytokines and chemokines from neurons and non-neuronal cells can sensitize neurons of the first pain synapse. In this article we review the current evidence for the role of cytokines in mediating spinal neuron–non-neuronal cell communication in neuropathic pain mechanisms following peripheral nerve injury. Specific and selective control of cytokine-mediated neuronal–glia interactions results in attenuation of the hypersensitivity to both noxious and innocuous stimuli observed in neuropathic pain models, and may represent an avenue for future therapeutic intervention.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Involvement of P2X4 and P2Y12 receptors in ATP-induced microglial chemotaxis.

              We previously reported that extracellular ATP induces membrane ruffling and chemotaxis of microglia and suggested that their induction is mediated by the Gi/o-protein coupled P2Y(12) receptor (P2Y(12)R). Here we report discovering that the P2X(4) receptor (P2X(4)R) is also involved in ATP-induced microglial chemotaxis. To understand the intracellular signaling pathway downstream of P2Y(12)R that underlies microglial chemotaxis, we examined the effect of two phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors, wortmannin, and LY294002, on chemotaxis in a Dunn chemotaxis chamber. The PI3K inhibitors significantly suppressed chemotaxis without affecting ATP-induced membrane ruffling. ATP stimulation increased Akt phosphorylation in the microglia, and the increase was reduced by the PI3K inhibitors and a P2Y(12)R antagonist. These results indicate that P2Y(12)R-mediated activation of the PI3K pathway is required for microglial chemotaxis in response to ATP. We also found that the Akt phosphorylation was reduced when extracellular calcium was chelated, suggesting that ionotropic P2X receptors are involved in microglial chemotaxis by affecting the PI3K pathway. We therefore tested the effect of various P2X(4)R antagonists on the chemotaxis, and the results showed that pharmacological blockade of P2X(4)R significantly inhibited it. Knockdown of the P2X(4) receptor in microglia by RNA interference through the lentivirus vector system also suppressed the microglial chemotaxis. These results indicate that P2X(4)R as well as P2Y(12)R is involved in ATP-induced microglial chemotaxis.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2017
                26 July 2017
                : 10
                : 1755-1767
                Affiliations
                Department of Physiology, Zunyi Medical College, Guizhou, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Junwei Zeng, Department of Physiology, Zunyi Medical College, No. 6 West Xuefu Road, Xinpu District, Zunyi, Guizhou 563006, China, Tel +86 852 2860 9442, Email junweizeng@ 123456sohu.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                jpr-10-1755
                10.2147/JPR.S137131
                5536317
                © 2017 Liu et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Comments

                Comment on this article