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      Which Breast Pump for Which Mother: An Evidenced-Based Approach to Individualizing Breast Pump Technology

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          Abstract

          The majority of new mothers in the United States use breast pumps in the first four months post-birth in order to achieve their personal human milk feeding goals. Although these mothers seek guidance from health care professionals with respect to the type and use of breast pumps, there are few evidence-based guidelines to guide this professional advice. This paper reviews the evidence to facilitate professional individualization of breast pump recommendations using three categories of literature: the infant as the gold standard to which the pump is compared; the degree of maternal breast pump dependency (e.g., the extent to which the breast pump replaces the infant for milk removal and mammary gland stimulation); and the stage of lactation for which the pump replaces the infant. This review can also serve to inform public and private payers with respect to individualizing breast pump type to mother-dyad characteristics.

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          Most cited references 79

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          Studies in human lactation: milk volumes in lactating women during the onset of lactation and full lactation.

          After validation of test-weighing procedures milk volumes produced by 13 multiparous Caucasian women were followed longitudinally through the first year of lactation. All practiced exclusive breast-feeding for at least 5 mo. Milk transfer to the infant was low on days 1 and 2 and increased rapidly to 498 +/- 129 g/d (means +/- SD) on day 5 and then more slowly to 753 +/- 89 g/d during months 3-5. There was a characteristic milk volume for each mother-infant pair that was significantly related neither to milk yield on days 4-6 nor to birth weight. It was, however, strongly related to infant weight at 1 mo, suggesting that infant and/or maternal factors coming into play during the first month of life are strong determinants of subsequent milk transfer to the infant.
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            Delayed onset of lactogenesis among first-time mothers is related to maternal obesity and factors associated with ineffective breastfeeding.

            Delayed onset of lactogenesis (OL) is most common in primiparas and increases the risk of excess neonatal weight loss, formula supplementation, and early weaning. We examined variables associated with delayed OL among first-time mothers who delivered at term and initiated breastfeeding (n = 431). We conducted in-person interviews during pregnancy and at days 0, 3, and 7 postpartum and extracted obstetric and newborn information from medical records. We defined OL as delayed if it occurred after 72 h and used chi-square analysis to examine its association with potential risk factors across 6 dimensions: 1) prenatal characteristics, 2) maternal anthropometric characteristics, 3) labor and delivery experience, 4) newborn characteristics, 5) maternal postpartum factors, and 6) infant feeding variables. We examined independent associations by using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Median OL was 68.9 h postpartum; 44% of mothers experienced delayed OL. We observed significant bivariate associations between delayed OL and variables in all 6 dimensions (P or =30 y, body mass index in the overweight or obese range, birth weight >3600 g, absence of nipple discomfort between 0-3 d postpartum, and infant failing to "breastfeed well" > or =2 times in the first 24 h. Postpartum edema was significant in an alternate model excluding body mass index (P < 0.05). The risk factors for delayed OL are multidimensional. Public health and obstetric and maternity care interventions are needed to address what has become an alarmingly common problem among primiparas.
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              Characterization of the developmental stages of sucking in preterm infants during bottle feeding.

              It is acknowledged that the difficulty many preterm infants have in feeding orally results from their immature sucking skills. However, little is known regarding the development of sucking in these infants. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the bottle-feeding performance of preterm infants is positively correlated with the developmental stage of their sucking. Infants' oral-motor skills were followed longitudinally using a special nipple/bottle system which monitored the suction and expression/compression component of sucking. The maturational process was rated into five primary stages based on the presence/absence of suction and the rhythmicity of the two components of sucking, suction and expression/compression. This five-point scale was used to characterize the developmental stage of sucking of each infant. Outcomes of feeding performance consisted of overall transfer (percent total volume transferred/volume to be taken) and rate of transfer (ml/min). Assessments were conducted when infants were taking 1-2, 3-5 and 6-8 oral feedings per day. Significant positive correlations were observed between the five stages of sucking and postmenstrual age, the defined feeding outcomes, and the number of daily oral feedings. Overall transfer and rate of transfer were enhanced when infants reached the more mature stages of sucking. We have demonstrated that oral feeding performance improves as infants' sucking skills mature. In addition, we propose that the present five-point sucking scale may be used to assess the developmental stages of sucking of preterm infants. Such knowledge would facilitate the management of oral feeding in these infants.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                8501884
                5061
                J Perinatol
                J Perinatol
                Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association
                0743-8346
                1476-5543
                15 December 2015
                25 February 2016
                July 2016
                25 August 2016
                : 36
                : 7
                : 493-499
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Rush University Medical Center, 1653 West Congress Parkway, Chicago, IL
                [2 ]Department of Women, Children and Family Nursing, Rush University Medical Center, 1653 West Congress Parkway, Chicago, IL
                Author notes
                Corresponding Author: Paula P. Meier, PhD, RN, Rush University Medical Center, 1653 West Congress Parkway, Chicago, IL 60612, Paula_Meier@ 123456rush.edu , Phone: 708-307-7496, Fax: 312-942-4370
                Article
                NIHMS743721
                10.1038/jp.2016.14
                4920726
                26914013

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