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      Earliest Mechanisms of Dopaminergic Neurons Sufferance in a Novel Slow Progressing Ex Vivo Model of Parkinson Disease in Rat Organotypic Cultures of Substantia Nigra

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          Abstract

          The current treatments of Parkinson disease (PD) are ineffective mainly due to the poor understanding of the early events causing the decline of dopaminergic neurons (DOPAn). To overcome this problem, slow progressively degenerating models of PD allowing the study of the pre-clinical phase are crucial. We recreated in a short ex vivo time scale (96 h) all the features of human PD (needing dozens of years) by challenging organotypic culture of rat substantia nigra with low doses of rotenone. Thus, taking advantage of the existent knowledge, the model was used to perform a time-dependent comparative study of the principal possible causative molecular mechanisms undergoing DOPAn demise. Alteration in the redox state and inflammation started at 3 h, preceding the reduction in DOPAn number (pre-diagnosis phase). The number of DOPAn declined to levels compatible with diagnosis only at 12 h. The decline was accompanied by a persistent inflammation and redox imbalance. Significant microglia activation, apoptosis, a reduction in dopamine vesicle transporters, and the ubiquitination of misfolded protein clearance pathways were late (96 h, consequential) events. The work suggests inflammation and redox imbalance as simultaneous early mechanisms undergoing DOPAn sufferance, to be targeted for a causative treatment aimed to stop/delay PD.

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          Most cited references 64

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          Mechanism of toxicity in rotenone models of Parkinson's disease.

          Exposure of rats to the pesticide and complex I inhibitor rotenone reproduces features of Parkinson's disease, including selective nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration and alpha-synuclein-positive cytoplasmic inclusions (Betarbet et al., 2000; Sherer et al., 2003). Here, we examined mechanisms of rotenone toxicity using three model systems. In SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells, rotenone (10 nm to 1 microm) caused dose-dependent ATP depletion, oxidative damage, and death. To determine the molecular site of action of rotenone, cells were transfected with the rotenone-insensitive single-subunit NADH dehydrogenase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NDI1), which incorporates into the mammalian ETC and acts as a "replacement" for endogenous complex I. In response to rotenone, NDI1-transfected cells did not show mitochondrial impairment, oxidative damage, or death, demonstrating that these effects of rotenone were caused by specific interactions at complex I. Although rotenone caused modest ATP depletion, equivalent ATP loss induced by 2-deoxyglucose was without toxicity, arguing that bioenergetic defects were not responsible for cell death. In contrast, reducing oxidative damage with antioxidants, or by NDI1 transfection, blocked cell death. To determine the relevance of rotenone-induced oxidative damage to dopaminergic neuronal death, we used a chronic midbrain slice culture model. In this system, rotenone caused oxidative damage and dopaminergic neuronal loss, effects blocked by alpha-tocopherol. Finally, brains from rotenone-treated animals demonstrated oxidative damage, most notably in midbrain and olfactory bulb, dopaminergic regions affected by Parkinson's disease. These results, using three models of increasing complexity, demonstrate the involvement of oxidative damage in rotenone toxicity and support the evaluation of antioxidant therapies for Parkinson's disease.
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            Parkinson disease: from pathology to molecular disease mechanisms.

            Parkinson disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder with both motor and nonmotor symptoms owing to a spreading process of neuronal loss in the brain. At present, only symptomatic treatment exists and nothing can be done to halt the degenerative process, as its cause remains unclear. Risk factors such as aging, genetic susceptibility, and environmental factors all play a role in the onset of the pathogenic process but how these interlink to cause neuronal loss is not known. There have been major advances in the understanding of mechanisms that contribute to nigral dopaminergic cell death, including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, altered protein handling, and inflammation. However, it is not known if the same processes are responsible for neuronal loss in nondopaminergic brain regions. Many of the known mechanisms of cell death are mirrored in toxin-based models of PD, but neuronal loss is rapid and not progressive and limited to dopaminergic cells, and drugs that protect against toxin-induced cell death have not translated into neuroprotective therapies in humans. Gene mutations identified in rare familial forms of PD encode proteins whose functions overlap widely with the known molecular pathways in sporadic disease and these have again expanded our knowledge of the neurodegenerative process but again have so far failed to yield effective models of sporadic disease when translated into animals. We seem to be missing some key parts of the jigsaw, the trigger event starting many years earlier in the disease process, and what we are looking at now is merely part of a downstream process that is the end stage of neuronal death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Role of Oxidative Stress in Parkinson's Disease

               Onyou Hwang (2013)
              Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder associated with a selective loss of the dopamine(DA)rgic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and the degeneration of projecting nerve fibers in the striatum. Because there is currently no therapy that delays the neurodegenerative process, modification of the disease course by neuroprotective therapy is an important unmet clinical need. Toward this end, understanding cellular mechanisms that render the nigral neurons particularly vulnerable have been a subject of intensive research. Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a major role. The metabolism of DA itself contributes to oxidative stress, resulting in modification of intracellular macromolecules whose functions are important for cell survival. Mitochondrial dysfunction and the consequent increase in reactive oxygen species also trigger a sequence of events that leads to cell demise. In addition, activated microglia produce nitric oxide and superoxide during neuroinflammatory responses, and this is aggravated by the molecules released by damaged DAergic neurons such as α-synuclein, neuromelanin and matrix metalloproteinase-3. Ways to reduce oxidative stress therefore can provide a therapeutic strategy. NAD(P)H:quinone reductase (NQO1) and other antioxidant enzymes, whose gene expression are commonly under the regulation of the transcription factor Nrf2, can serve as target proteins utilized toward development of disease-modifying therapy for PD.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                06 May 2019
                May 2019
                : 20
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medical, Surgical, and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, 34100 Trieste, Italy; mdalben@ 123456fegato.it
                [2 ]Fondazione Italiana Fegato, AREA Science Park, 34149 Trieste, Italy; rbongiovanni@ 123456fegato.it (R.B.); simone.tuniz@ 123456fegato.it (S.T.); emanuela.fioriti@ 123456fegato.it (E.F.); ctliver@ 123456fegato.it (C.T.)
                [3 ]Neurology Clinic, Department of Medical, Surgical, and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, 34100 Trieste, Italy; moretti@ 123456units.it
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: silvia.gazzin@ 123456fegato.it ; Tel.: +39-040-375-7925
                Article
                ijms-20-02224
                10.3390/ijms20092224
                6539377
                31064126
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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