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Radiation damage in the TEM and SEM.

Micron (Oxford, England : 1993)

Static Electricity, Reproducibility of Results, Radiology, standards, Microscopy, Electron, Scanning, Microscopy, Electron

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      Abstract

      We review the various ways in which an electron beam can adversely affect an organic or inorganic sample during examination in an electron microscope. The effects considered are: heating, electrostatic charging, ionization damage (radiolysis), displacement damage, sputtering and hydrocarbon contamination. In each case, strategies to minimise the damage are identified. In the light of recent experimental evidence, we re-examine two common assumptions: that the amount of radiation damage is proportional to the electron dose and is independent of beam diameter; and that the extent of the damage is proportional to the amount of energy deposited in the specimen.

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      Journal
      10.1016/j.micron.2004.02.003
      15120123

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