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      Recent Advances in Antimicrobial Polymers: A Mini-Review

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          Abstract

          Human safety and well-being is threatened by microbes causing numerous infectious diseases resulting in a large number of deaths every year. Despite substantial progress in antimicrobial drugs, many infectious diseases remain difficult to treat. Antimicrobial polymers offer a promising antimicrobial strategy for fighting pathogens and have received considerable attention in both academic and industrial research. This mini-review presents the advances made in antimicrobial polymers since 2013. Antimicrobial mechanisms exhibiting either passive or active action and polymer material types containing bound or leaching antimicrobials are introduced. This article also addresses the applications of these antimicrobial polymers in the medical, food, and textile industries.

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          Most cited references 91

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          The global threat of antimicrobial resistance: science for intervention

          In the last decade we have witnessed a dramatic increase in the proportion and absolute number of bacterial pathogens resistant to multiple antibacterial agents. Multidrug-resistant bacteria are currently considered as an emergent global disease and a major public health problem. The B-Debate meeting brought together renowned experts representing the main stakeholders (i.e. policy makers, public health authorities, regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies and the scientific community at large) to review the global threat of antibiotic resistance and come up with a coordinated set of strategies to fight antimicrobial resistance in a multifaceted approach. We summarize the views of the B-Debate participants regarding the current situation of antimicrobial resistance in animals and the food chain, within the community and the healthcare setting as well as the role of the environment and the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, providing expert recommendations to tackle the global threat of antimicrobial resistance.
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            Natural and synthetic polymers for wounds and burns dressing.

            In the last years, health care professionals faced with an increasing number of patients suffering from wounds and burns difficult to treat and heal. During the wound healing process, the dressing protects the injury and contributes to the recovery of dermal and epidermal tissues. Because their biocompatibility, biodegradability and similarity to macromolecules recognized by the human body, some natural polymers such as polysaccharides (alginates, chitin, chitosan, heparin, chondroitin), proteoglycans and proteins (collagen, gelatin, fibrin, keratin, silk fibroin, eggshell membrane) are extensively used in wounds and burns management. Obtained by electrospinning technique, some synthetic polymers like biomimetic extracellular matrix micro/nanoscale fibers based on polyglycolic acid, polylactic acid, polyacrylic acid, poly-ɛ-caprolactone, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, exhibit in vivo and in vitro wound healing properties and enhance re-epithelialization. They provide an optimal microenvironment for cell proliferation, migration and differentiation, due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, peculiar structure and good mechanical properties. Thus, synthetic polymers are used also in regenerative medicine for cartilage, bone, vascular, nerve and ligament repair and restoration. Biocompatible with fibroblasts and keratinocytes, tissue engineered skin is indicated for regeneration and remodeling of human epidermis and wound healing improving the treatment of severe skin defects or partial-thickness burn injuries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Antimicrobial Polymers in Solution and on Surfaces: Overview and Functional Principles

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                20 September 2016
                September 2016
                : 17
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]The School of Chinese Medicine for Post-Baccalaureate, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 84001, Taiwan; huangks@ 123456isu.edu.tw
                [2 ]Department of Biological Science and Technology, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 84001, Taiwan; chyang@ 123456isu.edu.tw
                [3 ]Department of Chemical Engineering, National United University, Miaoli 36003, Taiwan; simone@ 123456nuu.edu.tw (S.-L.H.); wayne20410@ 123456gmail.com (C.-Y.C.); ilovego0014010@ 123456yahoo.com.tw (Y.-Y.L.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: linys@ 123456nuu.edu.tw ; Tel.: +886-37-382-199
                Article
                ijms-17-01578
                10.3390/ijms17091578
                5037843
                27657043
                © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                Molecular biology

                antimicrobial, polymer, microbe, bacteria, review

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