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      Hyperphosphatemia Modestly Retards Parathyroid Hormone Suppression during Calcitriol-Induced Hypercalcemia in Normal and Azotemic Rats

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: In in vitro studies, a high phosphate concentration has been shown to directly stimulate parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion in a normal calcium concentration and to reduce PTH suppression in a high calcium concentration. In hemodialysis patients during dialysis-induced hypercalcemia, the effect of hyperphosphatemia on PTH secretion was less than in vitro studies. Our goal was to determine whether hyperphosphatemia retards PTH suppression during calcitriol-induced hypercalcemia in azotemic rats with hyperparathyroidism. Methods: Rats underwent a two-stage 5/6 nephrectomy or sham operations. After surgery, rats received a high phosphate diet (P 1.2%, Ca 0.6%) for 4 weeks to induce hyperparathyroidism and then were placed on a normal diet (P 0.6%, Ca 0.6%) for two additional weeks to normalize serum calcium values in azotemic rats. At week 7, rats were divided into five groups and before sacrifice received at 24-hour intervals, three doses of calcitriol (CTR) or its vehicle. The five groups and dietary phosphate content were: group 1 – normal renal function (NRF) + 0.6% P + vehicle; group 2 – NRF + 0.6% P + CTR; group 3 – renal failure (RF) + 0.6% P + vehicle; group 4 – RF + 1.2% P + CTR; and group 5 – RF + 0.6% P + CTR. Results: In the two CTR-treated groups with marked hypercalcemia (groups 2 and 5), 15.52 ± 0.26 and 15.12 ± 0.13 mg/dl, respectively, stepwise regression showed that hyperphosphatemia retarded PTH suppression. When the two azotemic groups treated with CTR (groups 4 and 5) were combined to expand the range of serum calcium values, stepwise regression showed that hypercalcemia suppressed and hyperphosphatemia modestly retarded PTH suppression. Similarly, in groups 4 and 5 combined, correlations were present between PTH and both serum calcium (r = –0.70, p < 0.001) and serum phosphate (r = 0.64, p = 0.001). Conclusions: Hypercalcemia and high doses of calcitriol markedly reduced PTH secretion in azotemic rats despite severe hyperphosphatemia. Even though hyperphosphatemia did retard PTH suppression during hypercalcemia, its effect was small.

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          Most cited references 5

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          RNA-Protein binding and post-transcriptional regulation of parathyroid hormone gene expression by calcium and phosphate.

          Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates serum calcium and phosphate levels, which, in turn, regulate PTH secretion and mRNA levels. PTH mRNA levels are markedly increased in rats fed low calcium diets and decreased after low phosphate diets, and this effect is post-transcriptional. Protein-PTH mRNA binding studies, with parathyroid cytosolic proteins, showed three protein-RNA bands. This binding was to the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the PTH mRNA and was dependent upon the terminal 60 nucleotides. Parathyroid proteins from hypocalcemic rats showed increased binding, and proteins from hypophosphatemic rats decreased binding, correlating with PTH mRNA levels. There is no parathyroid cell line; however, a functional role was provided by an in vitro degradation assay. Parathyroid proteins from control rats incubated with a PTH mRNA probe led to an intact transcript for 40 min; the transcript was intact with hypocalcemic proteins for 180 min and with hypophosphatemic proteins only for 5 min. A PTH mRNA probe without the 3'-UTR, or just the terminal 60 nucleotides, incubated with hypophosphatemic proteins, showed no degradation at all, indicating that the sequences in the 3'-UTR determine PTH mRNA degradation. Hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia regulate PTH gene expression post-transcriptionally. This correlates with binding of proteins to the PTH mRNA 3'-UTR, which determines its stability.
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            Decreased calcium-sensing receptor expression in hyperplastic parathyroid glands of uremic rats: role of dietary phosphate.

            The abnormal control of parathyroid hormone secretion in chronic renal failure is attributed, in part, to down-regulation of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) in hyperplastic parathyroid tissue. The cause of this down-regulation is unknown. Here we examined the roles of uremia and parathyroid hyperplasia on parathyroid gland (PTG) CaR expression in the rat model of renal failure. Rats made uremic by 5/6 nephrectomy were maintained for one month on diets containing 0.2% P (low phosphate), 0.5% P (normal phosphate) or 1.2% P (high phosphate); intact rats (controls) were maintained on the normal-phosphate diet. CaR mRNA was reduced only in uremic rats fed the high-phosphate diet (55% less than in controls, P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining revealed decreased CaR protein expression in uremic high-phosphate rat PTG compared with controls (41% decrease as determined by computer-assisted quantitation, P < 0.01). PTG size was increased in uremic rats fed the high-phosphate diet compared with controls (2.77 +/- 0.95 vs. 0.77 +/- 0.16 microgram/g body wt, P < 0.0001). There was no increase in PTG size in uremic rats fed the low-phosphate and normal-phosphate diets (0.92 +/- 0.31 and 1.01 +/- 0.31 micrograms/g) compared with controls (0.77 +/- 0.16 microgram/g body wt). Immunohistochemical staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen in hyperplastic PTG from uremic rats showed that CaR was decreased primarily in areas of active cell proliferation. These results suggest that CaR down-regulation cannot be attributed to uremia per se, but rather, is associated with parathyroid cell proliferation. Furthermore, dietary phosphate restriction prevents both the parathyroid hyperplasia and decreased CaR expression in renal failure.
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              Dynamics of skeletal resistance to parathyroid hormone in the rat: effect of renal failure and dietary phosphorus.

              Secondary hyperparathyroidism develops in renal failure and is generally ascribed to factors directly affecting parathyroid hormone (PTH) production and/or secretion. These include hypocalcemia, phosphorus retention, and a calcitriol deficiency. However, not often emphasized is that skeletal resistance to PTH is an important factor. Our study evaluated: (1) the relative effects of uremia and dietary phosphorus on the skeletal resistance to PTH; and (2) how, during a PTH infusion, the dynamics of skeletal resistance to PTH were affected by renal failure. Renal failure was surgically induced and, based on serum creatinine, rats were divided into normal, moderate renal failure, and advanced renal failure. In each group, three diets with the same calcium (0.6%) but different phosphorus contents were used: high (1.2%, HPD); moderate (0.6%, MPD); and low (0.2%, LPD) phosphorus. The study diet was given for 14-16 days followed by a 48 h infusion of rat PTH(1-34) (0.11 microg/100 g per hour), a dose five times greater than the normal replacement dose. During the PTH infusion, rats received a calcium-free, low phosphorus (0.2%) diet. In both moderate and advanced renal failure, the PTH level was greatest in the HPD group (p < 0.05) and, despite normal serum calcium values, PTH was greater in the MPD than the LPD group (p < 0.05). Despite phosphorus restriction and normal serum calcium and calcitriol levels in the azotemic LPD groups, the PTH level was greater (p < 0.05) in the LPD group with advanced rather than moderate renal failure. During PTH infusion, the increase in serum calcium was progressively less (p < 0.05) in all groups as renal function declined. Furthermore, despite normal and similar serum phosphorus values at the end of PTH infusion, the serum calcium concentration was less (p < 0.05) in the HPD group than the other two groups and similar in the LPD and MPD groups. (1) uremia and phosphorus each had separate and major effects on skeletal resistance to PTH; (2) skeletal resistance to PTH was an important cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism, even in moderate renal failure; (3) during PTH infusion, the dynamics of skeletal resistance to PTH changed because all groups received a low phosphorus diet, and the adaptation to a new steady state was delayed by the degree of renal failure and the previous dietary phosphorus burden; and (4) normal serum phosphorus may not be indicative of body phosphorus stores during states of disequilibrium.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEF
                Nephron
                10.1159/issn.1660-8151
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                2235-3186
                2002
                October 2002
                18 October 2002
                : 92
                : 4
                : 883-888
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Nephrology, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; bDepartment of Medicine, West Los Angeles VA Medical Center and UCLA, Los Angeles, Calif., USA
                Article
                65454 Nephron 2002;92:883–888
                10.1159/000065454
                12399635
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 35, Pages: 6
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                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/65454
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