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      The effect of Ficus carica latex on 7, 12-dimethylbenz ( a) anthracene-induced breast cancer in rats

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          In traditional medicine, Ficus carica (also known as fig) latex is recognized as a remedy with various therapeutic effects. Recently, in vitro studies have reported the anticancer effect of this latex on cancer cell lines. This study evaluated the effect of this latex on breast cancer growth, hematological parameters, and histopathology in rats.

          Materials and Methods:

          Twenty-four female rats were randomly divided into 3 groups. In cancerous group, 0.5 ml 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene was injected to nipple for breast cancer induction. The control group received sesame oil at the same volume through similar route. In fig latex treated group (Fle), breast cancer was induced and then 0.5 ml of fig latex was intratumorally injected on a daily basis for 4 weeks. Tumor size was measured at the 2 nd, 4 th and 6 th weeks of the experiment. Blood samples were used for investigation of the hematological parameters and livers, kidneys and tumor tissues were removed for histopathological analysis.


          The tumor size in Fle group was significantly decreased compared to the cancerous group. Haematocrit, hemoglobin, RBC and their indices were significantly decreased, whereas platelet, leukocyte and white blood cell numbers were significantly increased in cancerous group compared to the control group. There were no changes in these parameters in the Fle group compared to the control group. There were severe pathological changes in the livers and kidneys of cancerous group, but not in Fle group.


          These results suggest that fig latex could decrease tumor growth without having any adverse effect on hematological and histological factors. However, further investigation is required in this field.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Oxygen-derived free radicals are important in both natural and acquired immunity. Neutrophil and macrophage phagocytosis stimulates various cellular processes including the "respiratory burst" whereby increased cellular oxygen uptake results in the production of the potent oxidant bactericidal agents, hypochlorous acid and hydroxyl radical. In addition, nitric oxide, a gaseous radical produced by macrophages, reacts with superoxide to form peroxynitrite, also a potent bactericidal agent. Conversely, oxidative stress may be detrimental in acquired immunity by activation of nuclear factor kappa B, which governs gene expression involving various cytokines, chemokines, and cell adhesion molecules, among others. However, antioxidant supplementation essentially reverses several age-associated immune deficiencies, resulting in increased levels of interleukin-2, elevated numbers of total lymphocytes and T-cell subsets, enhanced mitogen responsiveness, increased killer cell activity, augmented antibody response to antigen stimulation, decreased lipid peroxidation, and decreased prostaglandin synthesis.
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              Prognostic importance of the white blood cell count for coronary, cancer, and all-cause mortality.

               W. Ludwig,  J Neaton,  R Grimm (1985)
              The relationship of white blood cell count (WBC) to fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence and all-cause and cancer mortality was assessed in a subset of participants in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). For this group of 6,222 middle aged men, total WBC count was found to be strongly and significantly related to risk of CHD, independent of smoking status. Change in WBC count from baseline to the annual examination just prior to the CHD event was found to be a significant and independent predictor of CHD risk. For each decrease in WBC count of 1,000/cu mm the risk for CHD death decreased 14%, controlling for baseline WBC count and other CHD risk factors (smoking, cholesterol level, diastolic blood pressure). The WBC count was strongly related cross-sectionally to cigarette smoking and smoking status as indicated by serum thiocyanate concentration. Smokers on average had a WBC count of 7,750/cu mm compared with 6,080/cu mm for nonsmokers. The WBC count was also significantly associated with cancer death, independent of reported smoking and serum thiocyanate levels.

                Author and article information

                Avicenna J Phytomed
                Avicenna J Phytomed
                Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
                Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Mashhad, Iran )
                Jul-Aug 2018
                : 8
                : 4
                : 286-295
                [1 ] Department of Microbiology, Falavarjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
                [2 ] Department of Biology, Falavarjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding Author: Tel: +98-31-37420140, Fax: +98-31-37432601, Mehr.Fatemi7@gmail.com

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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