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      Evaluation of monoxide film-based dosimeters for surface dose detection in electron therapy

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          Abstract

          Generally, electron therapy is applied to tumors on or close to the skin surface. However, this causes a variety of skin-related side effects. To alleviate the risk of these side effects, clinical treatment uses skin dosimeters to verify the therapeutic dose. However, dosimeters suffer from poor accuracy, because their attachment sites are approximated with the help of naked eyes. Therefore, a dosimeter based on a flexible material that can adjust to the contours of the human body is required. In this study, the reproducibility, linearity, dose-rate dependence, and percentage depth ionization (PDI) of PbO and HgO film-based dosimeters are evaluated to explore their potential as large-scale flexible dosimeters. The results demonstrate that both dosimeters deliver impressive reproducibility (within 1.5%) and linearity (≥ 0.9990). The relative standard deviations of the dose-rate dependence of the PbO and HgO dosimeters were 0.94% and 1.16% at 6 MeV, respectively, and 1.08% and 1.25% at 9 MeV, respectively, with the PbO dosimeter outperforming the 1.1% of existing diodes. The PDI analysis of the PbO and HgO dosimeters returned values of 0.014 cm (–0.074 cm) and 0.051 cm (–0.016 cm), respectively at 6 MeV (9 MeV) compared to the thimble chamber and R 50. Therefore, the maximum error of each dosimeter is within the allowable range of 0.1 cm. In short, the analysis reveals that the PbO dosimeter delivers a superior performance relative to its HgO counterpart and has strong potential for use as a surface dosimeter. Thus, flexible monoxide materials have the necessary qualities to be used for dosimeters that meet the requisite quality assurance standards and can satisfy a variety of radiation-related applications as flexible functional materials.

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          Task Group 142 report: quality assurance of medical accelerators.

          The task group (TG) for quality assurance of medical accelerators was constituted by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine's Science Council under the direction of the Radiation Therapy Committee and the Quality Assurance and Outcome Improvement Subcommittee. The task group (TG-142) had two main charges. First to update, as needed, recommendations of Table II of the AAPM TG-40 report on quality assurance and second, to add recommendations for asymmetric jaws, multileaf collimation (MLC), and dynamic/virtual wedges. The TG accomplished the update to TG-40, specifying new test and tolerances, and has added recommendations for not only the new ancillary delivery technologies but also for imaging devices that are part of the linear accelerator. The imaging devices include x-ray imaging, photon portal imaging, and cone-beam CT. The TG report was designed to account for the types of treatments delivered with the particular machine. For example, machines that are used for radiosurgery treatments or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) require different tests and/or tolerances. There are specific recommendations for MLC quality assurance for machines performing IMRT. The report also gives recommendations as to action levels for the physicists to implement particular actions, whether they are inspection, scheduled action, or immediate and corrective action. The report is geared to be flexible for the physicist to customize the QA program depending on clinical utility. There are specific tables according to daily, monthly, and annual reviews, along with unique tables for wedge systems, MLC, and imaging checks. The report also gives specific recommendations regarding setup of a QA program by the physicist in regards to building a QA team, establishing procedures, training of personnel, documentation, and end-to-end system checks. The tabulated items of this report have been considerably expanded as compared with the original TG-40 report and the recommended tolerances accommodate differences in the intended use of the machine functionality (non-IMRT, IMRT, and stereotactic delivery).
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            Skin dose during radiotherapy: a summary and general estimation technique

            The skin dose associated with radiotherapy may be of interest for clinical evaluation or investigating the risk of late effects. However, skin dose is not intuitive and is difficult to measure. Our objectives were to develop and evaluate a general estimation technique for skin dose based on treatment parameters. The literature on skin dose was supplemented with measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Using all available data, a general dosimetry system was developed (in the form of a series of equations) to estimate skin dose based on treatment parameters including field size, the presence of a block tray, and obliquity of the treatment field. For out‐of‐field locations, the distance from the field edge was also considered. This dosimetry system was then compared to TLD measurements made on the surface of a phantom. As compared to measurements, the general dosimetry system was able to predict skin dose within, on average, 21% of the local dose (4% of the D max dose). Skin dose for patients receiving radiotherapy can be estimated with reasonable accuracy using a set of general rules and equations. PACS numbers: 87.53.‐j, 87.53.Bn, 87.55.ne
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              Khan’s the physics of radiation therapy

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: Software
                Role: Formal analysisRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Formal analysisRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Formal analysisRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Formal analysisRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Formal analysisRole: SoftwareRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: SoftwareRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS One
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                21 May 2021
                2021
                : 16
                : 5
                : e0251441
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Inje University, Busan, Republic of Korea
                [2 ] Departments of Radiation Oncology, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Busan, Republic of Korea
                [3 ] Department of Radiation Oncology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University, Busan, Republic of Korea
                University of Seville, SPAIN
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9929-2792
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0769-9198
                Article
                PONE-D-21-00153
                10.1371/journal.pone.0251441
                8139496
                34019553
                f68d158e-b6b5-4521-b371-d8326df45381
                © 2021 Han et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 4 January 2021
                : 27 April 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, Pages: 10
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003725, National Research Foundation of Korea;
                Award ID: NRF-2019R1C1C1008911
                The study was funded financially from ‘National Research Foundation of korea (NRF- 2019R1C1C1008911)’. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The authors Moo Jae Han and Seung Woo Yang received salary support from the above support organizations.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Engineering and Technology
                Electronics Engineering
                Electronics
                Diodes
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Research Assessment
                Reproducibility
                Physical Sciences
                Materials Science
                Materials
                Binders
                Physical Sciences
                Materials Science
                Materials
                Semiconductors
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Oncology
                Cancers and Neoplasms
                Skin Neoplasms
                Skin Tumors
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Dermatology
                Skin Neoplasms
                Skin Tumors
                Physical Sciences
                Chemistry
                Chemical Reactions
                Ionization
                Physical Sciences
                Chemistry
                Physical Chemistry
                Chemical Deposition
                Chemical Vapor Deposition
                Engineering and Technology
                Industrial Engineering
                Process Engineering
                Industrial Processes
                Manufacturing Processes
                Surface Treatments
                Chemical Deposition
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                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Oncology
                Cancer Treatment
                Radiation Therapy
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Clinical Medicine
                Clinical Oncology
                Radiation Therapy
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Oncology
                Clinical Oncology
                Radiation Therapy
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

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