The reliability and frequency specificity of the 80-Hz amplitude-modulation-following response (80-Hz AMFR) during sleep detected by phase coherence as a measure of the hearing threshold was evaluated in 169 affected ears of 125 children with hearing impairment. The 80-Hz AMFR at a carrier frequency of 1000 Hz was monitored in all 169 ears and the auditory brainstem response (ABR) elicited by 1000-Hz tone pips was evaluated in 93 ears. Both responses were examined during sleep, and the thresholds were compared with the behavioral hearing threshold, which was determined by standard pure-tone audiometry or play audiometry. In 24 ears of 22 children with various patterns of audiogram, the 80-Hz AMFR was examined at different carrier frequencies, and the threshold pattern was compared with the pure-tone audiogram to investigate the frequency specificity of 80-Hz AMFR. The mean and standard deviation of the difference between the 80-Hz AMFR at a carrier frequency of 1000 Hz and pure-tone thresholds of 1000 Hz was 3.8 and 12.9 dB, and that between the ABR and pure-tone thresholds was 6.8 and 14.1 dB, respectively. The threshold patterns of 80-Hz AMFR clearly followed the corresponding audiogram patterns in all types of hearing impairment. The measurement of 80-Hz AMFR thus appears to be accurate in hearing assessment and to have good frequency specificity in children during sleep.