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      The Protective Role of Klotho in CKD-Associated Cardiovascular Disease

      , , , *

      Kidney Diseases

      S. Karger AG

      Chronic kidney disease, Cardiovascular diseases, Klotho

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          Abstract

          Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in advanced CKD. The major pathological changes of CKD-associated CVD are severe vascular media calcification, aberrant cardiac remodeling such as hypertrophy and fibrosis, as well as accelerated atherosclerosis. α-Klotho is proposed as an anti-aging gene, which is primarily expressed in the kidney. Recent studies reveal that α-Klotho deficiency is associated with profound cardiovascular dysfunction. Of note, CKD represents extremely declined α-Klotho levels, hinting that α-Klotho deficiency may be implicated in the pathogenesis of CKD-associated CVD. Summary: Based on the pathogenic mechanism of α-Klotho deficiency and decreased Klotho levels in the circulation even early in stage 1 of CKD, α-Klotho serves as a sensitive biomarker for renal insufficiency and also a novel predictor of risk of overall mortality of CVD events in CKD. Meanwhile, loss of Klotho resulted from kidney dysfunction markedly contributes to the progressive development of CKD and CVD. By contrast, prevention of Klotho decline using exogenous supplementation or genetically activated ways by several mechanisms can dramatically mitigate cardiac dysfunction, prevent vascular calcification, and retard the progression of CKD-accelerated atherosclerosis. Key Messages: Klotho deficiency is proposed as a novel predictive biomarker as well as a pathogenic contributor to CVD events in CKD. In the future, Klotho may be a crucial potential therapeutic strategy to decrease the burden of CVD comorbidity with CKD in clinics.

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          Most cited references 110

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          Klotho: a tumor suppressor and a modulator of the IGF-1 and FGF pathways in human breast cancer.

          Klotho is an anti-aging gene, which has been shown to inhibit the insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) pathways in mice hepatocytes and myocytes. As IGF-1 and insulin regulate proliferation, survival and metastasis of breast cancer, we studied klotho expression and activities in human breast cancer. Immunohistochemistry analysis of klotho expression in breast tissue arrays revealed high klotho expression in normal breast samples, but very low expression in breast cancer. In cancer samples, high klotho expression was associated with smaller tumor size and reduced KI67 staining. Forced expression of klotho reduced proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, whereas klotho silencing in MCF-7 cells, which normally express klotho, enhanced proliferation. Moreover, forced expression of klotho in these cells, or treatment with soluble klotho, inhibited the activation of IGF-1 and insulin pathways, and induced upregulation of the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta, a breast cancer growth inhibitor that is negatively regulated by the IGF-1-AKT axis. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed an interaction between klotho and the IGF-1 receptor. Klotho is also a known modulator of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) pathway, a pathway that inhibits proliferation of breast cancer cells. Studies in breast cancer cells revealed increased activation of the FGF pathway by basic FGF following klotho overexpression. Klotho did not affect activation of the epidermal growth factor pathway in breast cancer cells. These data suggest klotho as a potential tumor suppressor and identify it as an inhibitor of the IGF-1 pathway and activator of the FGF pathway in human breast cancer.
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            The FGF23-Klotho axis: endocrine regulation of phosphate homeostasis.

             M. Razzaque (2009)
            Appropriate levels of phosphate in the body are maintained by the coordinated regulation of the bone-derived growth factor FGF23 and the membrane-bound protein Klotho. The endocrine actions of FGF23, in association with parathyroid hormone and vitamin D, mobilize sodium-phosphate cotransporters that control renal phosphate transport in proximal tubular epithelial cells. The availability of an adequate amount of Klotho is essential for FGF23 to exert its phosphaturic effects in the kidney. In the presence of Klotho, FGF23 activates downstream signaling components that influence the homeostasis of phosphate, whereas in the absence of this membrane protein, it is unable to exert such regulatory effects, as demonstrated convincingly in animal models. Several factors, including phosphate and vitamin D, can regulate the production of both FGF23 and Klotho and influence their functions. In various acquired and genetic human diseases, dysregulation of FGF23 and Klotho is associated with vascular and skeletal anomalies owing to altered phosphate turnover. In this Review, I summarize how the endocrine effects of bone-derived FGF23, in coordination with Klotho, can regulate systemic phosphate homeostasis, and how an inadequate balance of these molecules can lead to complications that are caused by abnormal mineral ion metabolism.
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              Anti-apoptotic and anti-senescence effects of Klotho on vascular endothelial cells.

              Klotho-mutated mice manifest multiple age-related disorders that are observed in humans. A recent study suggested that Klotho protein might function as an anti-aging hormone in mammals. Because it has been reported that apoptosis and senescence in vascular endothelial cells are closely related to the progression of atherosclerosis, we investigated Klotho's ability to interfere with apoptosis and cellular senescence in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC). Klotho overexpression decreased H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis in COS-1 cells and Jurkat cells. Klotho protein also reduced H(2)O(2)- and etoposide-induced apoptosis in HUVEC. Caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity was lower in Klotho-treated HUVEC than in control cells. Senescence-associated beta-gal staining showed that Klotho protein interferes with H(2)O(2)-induced premature cellular senescence. The expression of p53 and p21 was lower in Klotho-treated cells. Our study suggests that Klotho acts as a humoral factor to reduce H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis and cellular senescence in vascular cells.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KDD
                KDD
                10.1159/issn.2296-9357
                Kidney Diseases
                S. Karger AG
                2296-9381
                2296-9357
                2020
                November 2020
                19 August 2020
                : 6
                : 6
                : 395-406
                Affiliations
                Department of Nephrology, The Key Laboratory for the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease of Chongqing, Kidney Center of PLA, Xinqiao Hospital, Army Medical University (Third Military Medical University), Chongqing, China
                Author notes
                *Jinghong Zhao, Department of Nephrology, The Key Laboratory for the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease of Chongqing, Kidney Center of PLA, Xinqiao Hospital, Army Medical University (Third Military Medical University), Xinqiao Street 83, Shapingba, Chongqing 400037 (China), zhaojh@tmmu.edu.cn
                Article
                509369 Kidney Dis 2020;6:395–406
                10.1159/000509369
                © 2020 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Review Article

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Chronic kidney disease, Cardiovascular diseases, Klotho

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