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      1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3 – Not Just a Calciotropic Hormone

      Nephron

      S. Karger AG

      Vitamin D, 1α,25(OH)2D3 , Growth factors, Immune function

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          Abstract

          1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D<sub>3</sub>, the hormonal form of vitamin D<sub>3</sub>, is widely appreciated to play a central role in calcium and phosphorous homeostasis. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that the sterol also plays an important role in the regulation of cellular growth, central nervous system function, and immune responsiveness. In this review, I will highlight some of the mechanisms by which 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D<sub>3</sub> regulates cellular growth, alters central nervous system function, and immune function.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Dendritic cell modulation by 1alpha,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its analogs: a vitamin D receptor-dependent pathway that promotes a persistent state of immaturity in vitro and in vivo.

          Dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in regulating immune activation and responses to self. DC maturation is central to the outcome of antigen presentation to T cells. Maturation of DCs is inhibited by physiological levels of 1alpha,25 dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)] and a related analog, 1alpha,25(OH)(2)-16-ene-23-yne-26,27-hexafluoro-19-nor-vitamin D(3) (D(3) analog). Conditioning of bone marrow cultures with 10(-10) M D(3) analog resulted in accumulation of immature DCs with reduced IL-12 secretion and without induction of transforming growth factor beta1. These DCs retained an immature phenotype after withdrawal of D(3) analog and exhibited blunted responses to maturing stimuli (CD40 ligation, macrophage products, or lipopolysaccharide). Resistance to maturation depended on the presence of the 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) receptor (VDR). In an in vivo model of DC-mediated antigen-specific sensitization, D(3) analog-conditioned DCs failed to sensitize and, instead, promoted prolonged survival of subsequent skin grafts expressing the same antigen. To investigate the physiologic significance of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)/VDR-mediated modulation of DC maturity we analyzed DC populations from mice lacking VDR. Compared with wild-type animals, VDR-deficient mice had hypertrophy of subcutaneous lymph nodes and an increase in mature DCs in lymph nodes but not spleen. We conclude that 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)/VDR mediates physiologically relevant inhibition of DC maturity that is resistant to maturational stimuli and modulates antigen-specific immune responses in vivo.
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            Targeted ablation of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1alpha -hydroxylase enzyme: evidence for skeletal, reproductive, and immune dysfunction.

            The active form of vitamin D, 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1alpha,25(OH)2D], is synthesized from its precursor 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] via the catalytic action of the 25(OH)D-1alpha-hydroxylase [1alpha(OH)ase] enzyme. Many roles in cell growth and differentiation have been attributed to 1,25(OH)2D, including a central role in calcium homeostasis and skeletal metabolism. To investigate the in vivo functions of 1,25(OH)2D and the molecular basis of its actions, we developed a mouse model deficient in 1alpha(OH)ase by targeted ablation of the hormone-binding and heme-binding domains of the 1alpha(OH)ase gene. After weaning, mice developed hypocalcemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, retarded growth, and the skeletal abnormalities characteristic of rickets. These abnormalities are similar to those described in humans with the genetic disorder vitamin D dependent rickets type I [VDDR-I; also known as pseudovitamin D-deficiency rickets (PDDR)]. Altered non-collagenous matrix protein expression and reduced numbers of osteoclasts were also observed in bone. Female mutant mice were infertile and exhibited uterine hypoplasia and absent corpora lutea. Furthermore, histologically enlarged lymph nodes in the vicinity of the thyroid gland and a reduction in CD4- and CD8-positive peripheral T lymphocytes were observed. Alopecia, reported in vitamin D receptor (VDR)-deficient mice and in humans with VDDR-II, was not seen. The findings establish a critical role for the 1alpha(OH)ase enzyme in mineral and skeletal homeostasis as well as in female reproduction and also point to an important role in regulating immune function.
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              Targeted ablation of the vitamin D receptor: An animal model of vitamin D-dependent rickets type II with alopecia

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEF
                Nephron
                10.1159/issn.1660-8151
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                2235-3186
                2002
                August 2002
                15 July 2002
                : 91
                : 4
                : 576-581
                Affiliations
                Departments of Medicine, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minn., USA
                Article
                65015 Nephron 2002;91:576–581
                10.1159/000065015
                12138257
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                References: 110, Pages: 6
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/65015
                Categories
                Distinguished Scientists Lecture Series. Section Editors: J.C.M. Chan; R.J. Krieg, Jr.; ...

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Immune function, Growth factors, 1α,25(OH)2D3 , Vitamin D

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