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      Mortality Risk within 14 Days after Coronavirus Disease 2019 Diagnosis in Dementia Patients: A Nationwide Analysis


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          The study evaluated the increased mortality risk within 14 days of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis in dementia patients.


          This retrospective study was conducted from February to April 2020 using the COVID-19 patients' database from the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. The risk factors for early death within 14 days were determined using generalized logistic regression performed in a stepwise manner. Dementia patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were used for the study. The propensity score-matched cohort was included as controls. The differences in mortality within 14 days after COVID-19 diagnosis between the dementia patients and controls were evaluated.


          We enrolled 5,349 COVID-19 patients from the database; 224 had dementia as comorbidity. The mortality rate within 14 days after COVID-19 diagnosis in dementia patients and the controls was 23.7% versus 1.7%, respectively, before propensity score matching (PSM) ( p < 0.001), and 23.7% versus 9.2% after PSM ( p < 0.001). The hazard ratio (HR) for mortality within 14 days in COVID-19 patients with dementia was significant even after PSM (HR 5.104, 95% confidence interval 2.889–5.673, p < 0.001). The survival curve of dementia patients was steeply inclined within 14 days after COVID-19 diagnosis, resulting in 70.7% of all deaths in dementia patients.


          COVID-19 patients with dementia had a higher risk of early death within 14 days. Thus, prompt intervention is necessary for dementia patients after COVID-19 diagnosis.

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          Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study

          Summary Background Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Findings 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03–1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61–12·23; p<0·0001), and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL (18·42, 2·64–128·55; p=0·0033) on admission. Median duration of viral shedding was 20·0 days (IQR 17·0–24·0) in survivors, but SARS-CoV-2 was detectable until death in non-survivors. The longest observed duration of viral shedding in survivors was 37 days. Interpretation The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. Funding Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.
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            Risk factors of critical & mortal COVID-19 cases: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis

            Background An epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) began in December 2019 and triggered a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). We aimed to find risk factors for the progression of COVID-19 to help reducing the risk of critical illness and death for clinical help. Methods The data of COVID-19 patients until March 20, 2020 were retrieved from four databases. We statistically analyzed the risk factors of critical/mortal and non-critical COVID-19 patients with meta-analysis. Results Thirteen studies were included in Meta-analysis, including a total number of 3027 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Male, older than 65, and smoking were risk factors for disease progression in patients with COVID-19 (male: OR = 1.76, 95% CI (1.41, 2.18), P 40U/L, creatinine(Cr) ≥ 133mol/L, hypersensitive cardiac troponin I(hs-cTnI) > 28pg/mL, procalcitonin(PCT) > 0.5ng/mL, lactatede hydrogenase(LDH) > 245U/L, and D-dimer > 0.5mg/L predicted the deterioration of disease while white blood cells(WBC) 40U/L:OR=4.00, 95% CI (2.46, 6.52), P 28 pg/mL: OR = 43.24, 95% CI (9.92, 188.49), P 0.5 ng/mL: OR = 43.24, 95% CI (9.92, 188.49), P 245U/L: OR = 43.24, 95% CI (9.92, 188.49), P 0.5mg/L: OR = 43.24, 95% CI (9.92, 188.49), P < 0.00001; WBC < 4 × 109/L: OR = 0.30, 95% CI (0.17, 0.51), P < 0.00001]. Conclusion Male, aged over 65, smoking patients might face a greater risk of developing into the critical or mortal condition and the comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory diseases could also greatly affect the prognosis of the COVID-19. Clinical manifestation such as fever, shortness of breath or dyspnea and laboratory examination such as WBC, AST, Cr, PCT, LDH, hs-cTnI and D-dimer could imply the progression of COVID-19.
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              The Role of Cytokines including Interleukin-6 in COVID-19 induced Pneumonia and Macrophage Activation Syndrome-Like Disease

              Severe COVID-19 associated pneumonia patients may exhibit features of systemic hyper-inflammation designated under the umbrella term of macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) or cytokine storm, also known as secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis (sHLH). This is distinct from HLH associated with immunodeficiency states termed primary HLH -with radically different therapy strategies in both situations. COVID-19 infection with MAS typically occurs in subjects with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and historically, non-survival in ARDS was linked to sustained IL-6 and IL-1 elevation. We provide a model for the classification of MAS to stratify the MAS-like presentation in COVID-19 pneumonia and explore the complexities of discerning ARDS from MAS. We discuss the potential impact of timing of anti-cytokine therapy on viral clearance and the impact of such therapy on intra-pulmonary macrophage activation and emergent pulmonary vascular disease.

                Author and article information

                Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord
                Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord
                Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
                S. Karger AG (Allschwilerstrasse 10, P.O. Box · Postfach · Case postale, CH–4009, Basel, Switzerland · Schweiz · Suisse, Phone: +41 61 306 11 11, Fax: +41 61 306 12 34, karger@karger.com )
                2 December 2021
                2 December 2021
                : 50
                : 5
                : 425-436
                [1] aInstitute of Convergence Medicine, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [2] bAdvanced Biomedical Research Institute, Ewha Womans University Seoul Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [3] cDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, Ewha Womans University Seoul Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [4] dDepartment of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [5] eSystem Health Science & Engineering, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [6] fDepartment of Molecular Medicine, Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [7] gDepartments of Neurology, Medical Science, and Computational Medicine, Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [8] hDepartment of Psychiatry, Keyo Hospital, Uiwang, Republic of Korea
                Author notes

                Yi-Jun Kim and Yongho Jee contributed equally to this work.

                Copyright © 2021 by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic or until permissions are revoked in writing. Upon expiration of these permissions, PMC is granted a perpetual license to make this article available via PMC and Europe PMC, consistent with existing copyright protections.

                : 12 May 2021
                : 4 September 2021
                : 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, References: 32, Pages: 12
                Research Article

                Geriatric medicine
                dementia,covid-19,early death,propensity score matching,general logistic regression


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