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      Orbitofrontal Cortex Value Signals Depend on Fixation Location during Free Viewing

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      Neuron

      Elsevier BV

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          Most cited references 47

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          An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function.

          The prefrontal cortex has long been suspected to play an important role in cognitive control, in the ability to orchestrate thought and action in accordance with internal goals. Its neural basis, however, has remained a mystery. Here, we propose that cognitive control stems from the active maintenance of patterns of activity in the prefrontal cortex that represent goals and the means to achieve them. They provide bias signals to other brain structures whose net effect is to guide the flow of activity along neural pathways that establish the proper mappings between inputs, internal states, and outputs needed to perform a given task. We review neurophysiological, neurobiological, neuroimaging, and computational studies that support this theory and discuss its implications as well as further issues to be addressed
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            Neural mechanisms of selective visual attention.

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              Self-control in decision-making involves modulation of the vmPFC valuation system.

              Every day, individuals make dozens of choices between an alternative with higher overall value and a more tempting but ultimately inferior option. Optimal decision-making requires self-control. We propose two hypotheses about the neurobiology of self-control: (i) Goal-directed decisions have their basis in a common value signal encoded in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and (ii) exercising self-control involves the modulation of this value signal by dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to monitor brain activity while dieters engaged in real decisions about food consumption. Activity in vmPFC was correlated with goal values regardless of the amount of self-control. It incorporated both taste and health in self-controllers but only taste in non-self-controllers. Activity in DLPFC increased when subjects exercised self-control and correlated with activity in vmPFC.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Neuron
                Neuron
                Elsevier BV
                08966273
                June 2016
                June 2016
                : 90
                : 6
                : 1299-1311
                Article
                10.1016/j.neuron.2016.04.045
                © 2016

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