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      Gallbladder Clear Cell Carcinoma: Report of a Rare Case and Literature Review


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          Carcinoma of the gallbladder is the most common biliary tract cancer. The majority of gallbladder cancers are adenocarcinomas, whereas clear-cell carcinoma of the gallbladder (CCG) is a rarely recorded variant. Usually, diagnosis is established incidentally after cholecystectomy, performed for another reason. Clinically, the different histological types of carcinomas are impossible to be recognized preoperatively, since they present with a wide and common range of symptoms. We present a male patient who underwent an emergency cholecystectomy due to suspected perforation. After an uneventful postoperative period, the histopathological report led to the diagnosis of CCG, but the surgical margins were infiltrated by the tumor. The patient decided not to proceed with any additional treatment and passed away 8 months after the operation. In conclusion, it is of great necessity to record such unusual cases and enriches global knowledge with information clinically and educationally noteworthy.

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          Most cited references41

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          Biliary cancer: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.

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            Hepatobiliary Cancers, Version 2.2021, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology.

            The NCCN Guidelines for Hepatobiliary Cancers focus on the screening, diagnosis, staging, treatment, and management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), gallbladder cancer, and cancer of the bile ducts (intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma). Due to the multiple modalities that can be used to treat the disease and the complications that can arise from comorbid liver dysfunction, a multidisciplinary evaluation is essential for determining an optimal treatment strategy. A multidisciplinary team should include hepatologists, diagnostic radiologists, interventional radiologists, surgeons, medical oncologists, and pathologists with hepatobiliary cancer expertise. In addition to surgery, transplant, and intra-arterial therapies, there have been great advances in the systemic treatment of HCC. Until recently, sorafenib was the only systemic therapy option for patients with advanced HCC. In 2020, the combination of atezolizumab and bevacizumab became the first regimen to show superior survival to sorafenib, gaining it FDA approval as a new frontline standard regimen for unresectable or metastatic HCC. This article discusses the NCCN Guidelines recommendations for HCC.
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              Tokyo Guidelines 2018: flowchart for the management of acute cholecystitis.

              We propose a new flowchart for the treatment of acute cholecystitis (AC) in the Tokyo Guidelines 2018 (TG18). Grade III AC was not indicated for straightforward laparoscopic cholecystectomy (Lap-C). Following analysis of subsequent clinical investigations and drawing on Big Data in particular, TG18 proposes that some Grade III AC can be treated by Lap-C when performed at advanced centers with specialized surgeons experienced in this procedure and for patients that satisfy certain strict criteria. For Grade I, TG18 recommends early Lap-C if the patients meet the criteria of Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) ≤5 and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification (ASA-PS) ≤2. For Grade II AC, if patients meet the criteria of CCI ≤5 and ASA-PS ≤2, TG18 recommends early Lap-C performed by experienced surgeons; and if not, after medical treatment and/or gallbladder drainage, Lap-C would be indicated. TG18 proposes that Lap-C is indicated in Grade III patients with strict criteria. These are that the patients have favorable organ system failure, and negative predictive factors, who meet the criteria of CCI ≤3 and ASA-PS ≤2 and who are being treated at an advanced center (where experienced surgeons practice). If the patient is not considered suitable for early surgery, TG18 recommends early/urgent biliary drainage followed by delayed Lap-C once the patient's overall condition has improved. Free full articles and mobile app of TG18 are available at: http://www.jshbps.jp/modules/en/index.php?content_id=47. Related clinical questions and references are also included.

                Author and article information

                Case Rep Surg
                Case Rep Surg
                Case Reports in Surgery
                24 June 2023
                : 2023
                : 8104679
                1General Surgery Department, Nicosia General Hospital, Nicosia, Cyprus
                2Histopathology Department, Nicosia General Hospital, Nicosia, Cyprus
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Eric Bergeron

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Panayiotis Papatheodorou et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 17 March 2023
                : 10 May 2023
                : 17 June 2023
                Case Report



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