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      Description of an establishment event by the invasive Asian longhorned beetle ( Anoplophora glabripennis) in a suburban landscape in the northeastern United States

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          Abstract

          The establishment of non-native species is commonly described as occurring in three phases: arrival, establishment, and dispersal. Both arrival and dispersal by the Asian longhorned beetle ( Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky), a xylophagous Cerambycid native to China and the Korean peninsula, has been documented for multiple locations in both North America and Europe, however the transitional phase, establishment, is not well understood for this species due to the need to rapidly remove populations to prevent dispersal and assist eradication, and the evident variation in the behavior of populations. Here we describe the dynamics of an establishment event for the Asian longhorned beetle in a small, isolated population within the regulated quarantine zone near Worcester, Massachusetts, USA. These data were collected during an opportunity afforded by logistical limits on the Cooperative Asian Longhorned Beetle Eradication Program administered by state, federal, and local government partners. Seventy-one infested red maple ( Acer rubrum) trees and 456 interspersed un-infested trees were surveyed in an isolated, recently established population within a ~0.29 ha stand in a suburban wetland conservation area in which nearly 90% of the trees were host species, and nearly 80% were Acer rubrum. Tree-ring analyses show that within this establishing population, Asian longhorned beetles initially infested one or two A. rubrum, before moving through the stand to infest additional A. rubrum based not on distance or direction, but on tree size, with infestation biased towards trees with larger trunk diameters. Survey data from the larger landscape suggest this population may have generated long-distance dispersers (~1400 m), and that these dispersal events occurred before the originally infested host trees were fully exploited by the beetle. The distribution and intensity of damage documented in this population suggest dispersal here may have been spatially more rapid and diffuse than in other documented infestations. Dispersal at these larger spatial scales also implies that when beetles move beyond the closed canopy of the stand, the direction of dispersal may be linked to prevailing winds.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Evolutionary ecology of the relationship between oviposition preference and performance of offspring in phytophagous insects

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            Population ecology of insect invasions and their management.

            During the establishment phase of a biological invasion, population dynamics are strongly influenced by Allee effects and stochastic dynamics, both of which may lead to extinction of low-density populations. Allee effects refer to a decline in population growth rate with a decline in abundance and can arise from various mechanisms. Strategies to eradicate newly established populations should focus on either enhancing Allee effects or suppressing populations below Allee thresholds, such that extinction proceeds without further intervention. The spread phase of invasions results from the coupling of population growth with dispersal. Reaction-diffusion is the simplest form of spread, resulting in continuous expansion and asymptotically constant radial rates of spread. However, spread of most nonindigenous insects is characterized by occasional long-distance dispersal, which results in the formation of isolated colonies that grow, coalesce, and greatly increase spread. Allee effects also affect spread, generally in a negative fashion. Efforts to slow, stop, or reverse spread should incorporate the spread dynamics unique to the target species.
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              Historical Accumulation of Nonindigenous Forest Pests in the Continental United States

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: MethodologyRole: Software
                Role: MethodologyRole: Resources
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                20 July 2017
                2017
                : 12
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ] United States Department of Agriculture, Center for Plant Health Science and Technology, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Otis Lab, United States of America
                [2 ] United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Asian Longhorned Beetle Cooperative Eradication Program, 151 West Boylston Dr., Worcester, United States of America
                [3 ] United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Hamden, United States of America
                Natural Resources Canada, CANADA
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                [¤]

                Current address: Environmental Protection Agency, USEPA Headquarters, William Jefferson Clintom Building, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Mail Code 7505P, Washington, D.C. 20460 United States of America

                Article
                PONE-D-17-04484
                10.1371/journal.pone.0181655
                5519225
                28727772

                This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, Pages: 16
                Product
                Funding
                This work supported by the USDA Animal Plant Health Inspection Service and the USDA Forest Service. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Arthropoda
                Insects
                Beetles
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Plants
                Trees
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Physiology
                Reproductive Physiology
                Oviposition
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Physiology
                Reproductive Physiology
                Oviposition
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Species Colonization
                Invasive Species
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Behavior
                Animal Behavior
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Zoology
                Animal Behavior
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Plant Science
                Plant Anatomy
                Wood
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Plants
                Trees
                Poplars
                People and places
                Geographical locations
                North America
                Canada
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

                Uncategorized

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