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      Incidence and predictors of diabetic ketoacidosis among children with diabetes in west and east Gojjam zone referral hospitals, northern Ethiopia, 2019

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          Abstract

          Background

          Recurrent diabetic ketoacidosis in patients with known diabetes mellitus remains a relevant problem in pediatrics with an incidence of 1–10% per patient. Children may die because of cerebral edema and had a significant mortality (24%) and morbidity (35%).

          Objective

          We assessed the incidence and predictors of diabetic ketoacidosis among diabetes children at East and West Gojjam zone referral hospitals, North West Ethiopia, 2019.

          Methods

          An institution-based retrospective follow up study was conducted on children who were registered from January 1, 2014, to January 1, 2019. Epi data version 3.1 & Stata 14 were used for data entering and analysis respectively.

          Result

          Out of 354 children included in the study, 207 (58.5%) developed diabetic ketoacidosis. The overall incidence rate of diabetic ketoacidosis was 2.27/100 children/month of observation. Age < 5 years (AHR: 3.52, 95% CI (2.25, 5.49), non-adherence (AHR: 1.54, 95% CI (1.11, 2.14), inappropriate insulin storage (AHR: 1.36, 95% CI (1.008, 1.85), presence of upper respiratory tract infections during diabetic ketoacidosis diagnose (AHR: 2.22, 95% CI (1.11, 4.45) and preceding gastroenteritis (AHR: 2.18, 95% CI (1.07, 4.44) were significant predictors.

          Conclusion

          Age < 5 years old, non-adherence, inappropriate insulin placement at home, preceding gastroenteritis, and presence of upper respiratory tract infections at the time of diabetic ketoacidosis development were significant predictors. Hence, assessing and close monitoring as well as strengthened diabetic education should be given for the above predictors.

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          Most cited references 29

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          The 30-year natural history of type 1 diabetes complications: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study experience.

          Declining incidences in Europe of overt nephropathy, proliferative retinopathy, and mortality in type 1 diabetes have recently been reported. However, comparable data for the U.S. and trend data for neuropathy and macrovascular complications are lacking. These issues are addressed using the prospective observational Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Childhood-Onset Diabetes Complications Study. Participants were stratified into five cohorts by diagnosis year: 1950-1959, 1960-1964, 1965-1969, 1970-1974, and 1975-1980. Mortality, renal failure, and coronary artery disease (CAD) status were determined on the complete cohort (n = 906) at 20, 25, and 30 years. Overt nephropathy, proliferative retinopathy, and neuropathy were assessed at 20 and 25 years on the subset of participants with a clinical examination. There was a decreasing trend by diagnosis year for mortality, renal failure, and neuropathy across all time intervals (P < 0.05), with the 1950-1959 cohort having a fivefold higher mortality at 25 years than the 1970s' cohorts. Proliferative retinopathy and overt nephropathy showed nonsignificant declines at 20 years (P < 0.16 and P < 0.13, respectively) and no change at 25 years. CAD event rates, which were lower than the other complications, also showed no trend. Although some type 1 diabetes complications (mortality, renal failure, and neuropathy) are declining, others (CAD, overt nephropathy, and proliferative retinopathy) show less favorable changes by 30 years.
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            Factors associated with the presence of diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of diabetes in children and young adults: a systematic review

            Objective To identify the factors associated with diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children and young adults. Design Systematic review. Data sources PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cinahl and article reference lists. Study selection Cohort studies including unselected groups of children and young adults presenting with new onset type 1 diabetes that distinguished between those who presented in diabetic ketoacidosis and those who did not and included a measurement of either pH or bicarbonate in the definition of diabetic ketoacidosis. There were no restrictions on language of publication. Results 46 studies involving more than 24 000 children in 31 countries were included. Together they compared 23 different factors. Factors associated with increased risk were younger age (for <2 years old v older, odds ratio 3.41 (95% confidence interval 2.54 to 4.59), for <5 years v older, odds ratio 1.59 (1.38 to 1.84)), diagnostic error (odds ratio 3.35 (2.35 to 4.79)), ethnic minority, lack of health insurance in the US (odds ratio 3.20 (2.03 to 5.04)), lower body mass index, preceding infection (odds ratio 3.14 (0.94 to 10.47)), and delayed treatment (odds ratio 1.74 (1.10 to 2.77)). Protective factors were having a first degree relative with type 1 diabetes at the time of diagnosis (odds ratio 0.33 (0.08 to 1.26)), higher parental education (odds ratios 0.4 (0.20 to 0.79) and 0.64 (0.43 to 0.94) in two studies), and higher background incidence of type 1 diabetes (correlation coefficient –0.715). The mean duration of symptoms was similar between children presenting with or without diabetic ketoacidosis (16.5 days (standard error 6.2) and 17.1 days (6.0) respectively), and up to 38.8% (285/735) of children who presented with diabetic ketoacidosis had been seen at least once by a doctor before diagnosis. Conclusions Multiple factors affect the risk of developing diabetic ketoacidosis at the onset of type 1 diabetes in children and young adults, and there is potential time, scope, and opportunity to intervene between symptom onset and development of diabetic ketoacidosis for both parents and clinicians.
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              Predictors of acute complications in children with type 1 diabetes.

              Diabetic ketoacidosis and severe hypoglycemia are acute complications of type 1 diabetes that are related, respectively, to insufficient or excessive insulin treatment. However, little is known about additional modifiable risk factors. To examine the incidence of ketoacidosis and severe hypoglycemia in children with diabetes and to determine the factors that predict these complications. A cohort of 1243 children from infancy to age 19 years with type 1 diabetes who resided in the Denver, Colo, metropolitan area were followed up prospectively for 3994 person-years from January 1, 1996, through December 31, 2000. Incidence of ketoacidosis leading to hospital admission or emergency department visit and severe hypoglycemia (loss of consciousness, seizure, or hospital admission or emergency department visit). The incidence of ketoacidosis was 8 per 100 person-years and increased with age in girls (4 per 100 person-years in or =13 years; P or =13 years), the risk of ketoacidosis in younger children increased with higher hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) (relative risk [RR], 1.68 per 1% increase; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45-1.94) and higher reported insulin dose (RR, 1.40 per 0.2 U/kg per day; 95% CI, 1.20-1.64). In older children, the risk of ketoacidosis increased with higher HbA(1c) (RR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.30-1.58), higher reported insulin dose (RR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.02-1.25), underinsurance (RR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.65-2.95), and presence of psychiatric disorders (for boys, RR, 1.59; 95% CI, 0.96-2.65; for girls, RR, 3.22; 95% CI, 2.25-4.61). The incidence of severe hypoglycemia was 19 per 100 person-years (P or =13 years). In younger children, the risk of severe hypoglycemia increased with diabetes duration (RR, 1.39 per 5 years; 95% CI, 1.16-1.69) and underinsurance (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.08-1.65). In older children, the risk of severe hypoglycemia increased with duration (RR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.25-1.51), underinsurance (RR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.11-1.81), lower HbA(1c) (RR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.12-1.32), and presence of psychiatric disorders (RR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.23-1.98). Eighty percent of episodes occurred among the 20% of children who had recurrent events. Some children with diabetes remain at high risk for ketoacidosis and severe hypoglycemia. Age- and sex-specific incidence patterns suggest that ketoacidosis is a challenge in adolescent girls while severe hypoglycemia continues to affect disproportionally the youngest patients and boys of all ages. The pattern of modifiable risk factors indicates that underinsured children and those with psychiatric disorders or at the extremes of the HbA(1c) distribution should be targeted for specific interventions.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Birtukanassefa19@gmail.com
                haymanotzeleke89@gmail.com
                rajisomanathan@gmail.com
                kalkidan.wd@gmail.com
                Journal
                Ital J Pediatr
                Ital J Pediatr
                Italian Journal of Pediatrics
                BioMed Central (London )
                1824-7288
                3 November 2020
                3 November 2020
                2020
                : 46
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.449044.9, ISNI 0000 0004 0480 6730, College of Health Sciences, , Debre-Markos University, ; Debre-Markos, Ethiopia
                [2 ]GRID grid.7123.7, ISNI 0000 0001 1250 5688, School of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Allied Health Sciences, , Addis Ababa University, ; Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                Article
                930
                10.1186/s13052-020-00930-4
                7640382
                33143741
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

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                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Pediatrics

                diabetic ketoacidosis, incidence, diabetic mellitus, and children

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