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      Global Distribution and Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes

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          Hepatitis C virus (HCV) exhibits high genetic diversity, characterized by regional variations in genotype prevalence. This poses a challenge to the improved development of vaccines and pan-genotypic treatments, which require the consideration of global trends in HCV genotype prevalence. Here we provide the first comprehensive survey of these trends. To approximate national HCV genotype prevalence, studies published between 1989 and 2013 reporting HCV genotypes are reviewed and combined with overall HCV prevalence estimates from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) project. We also generate regional and global genotype prevalence estimates, inferring data for countries lacking genotype information. We include 1,217 studies in our analysis, representing 117 countries and 90% of the global population. We calculate that HCV genotype 1 is the most prevalent worldwide, comprising 83.4 million cases (46.2% of all HCV cases), approximately one-third of which are in East Asia. Genotype 3 is the next most prevalent globally (54.3 million, 30.1%); genotypes 2, 4, and 6 are responsible for a total 22.8% of all cases; genotype 5 comprises the remaining <1%. While genotypes 1 and 3 dominate in most countries irrespective of economic status, the largest proportions of genotypes 4 and 5 are in lower-income countries. Conclusion: Although genotype 1 is most common worldwide, nongenotype 1 HCV cases—which are less well served by advances in vaccine and drug development—still comprise over half of all HCV cases. Relative genotype proportions are needed to inform healthcare models, which must be geographically tailored to specific countries or regions in order to improve access to new treatments. Genotype surveillance data are needed from many countries to improve estimates of unmet need. (H epatology 2015;61:77–87)

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              Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection: new estimates of age-specific antibody to HCV seroprevalence.

              In efforts to inform public health decision makers, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors 2010 (GBD2010) Study aims to estimate the burden of disease using available parameters. This study was conducted to collect and analyze available prevalence data to be used for estimating the hepatitis C virus (HCV) burden of disease. In this systematic review, antibody to HCV (anti-HCV) seroprevalence data from 232 articles were pooled to estimate age-specific seroprevalence curves in 1990 and 2005, and to produce age-standardized prevalence estimates for each of 21 GBD regions using a model-based meta-analysis. This review finds that globally the prevalence and number of people with anti-HCV has increased from 2.3% (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 2.1%-2.5%) to 2.8% (95% UI: 2.6%-3.1%) and >122 million to >185 million between 1990 and 2005. Central and East Asia and North Africa/Middle East are estimated to have high prevalence (>3.5%); South and Southeast Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, Andean, Central, and Southern Latin America, Caribbean, Oceania, Australasia, and Central, Eastern, and Western Europe have moderate prevalence (1.5%-3.5%); whereas Asia Pacific, Tropical Latin America, and North America have low prevalence (<1.5%). The high prevalence of global HCV infection necessitates renewed efforts in primary prevention, including vaccine development, as well as new approaches to secondary and tertiary prevention to reduce the burden of chronic liver disease and to improve survival for those who already have evidence of liver disease. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

                Author and article information

                [1 ]Spatial Epidemiology and Ecology Group, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford Oxford, UK
                [2 ]Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, University of Oxford, and Oxford NHIR BRC Oxford, UK
                [3 ]Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation Seattle, WA, USA
                [4 ]Division of Infectious Diseases, St Mary's Campus, Imperial College London, UK
                [5 ]Department of Zoology, University of Oxford Oxford, UK
                Author notes
                Address reprint requests to: Jane P. Messina or Eleanor Barnes, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Tinbergen Building, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PS, UK. E-mail: jane.messina@ or ellie.barnes@ ; fax: +44 (0) 1865 281 253 or +44 (0) 1865 281 0890.

                Potential conflict of interest: Dr. Cooke consults for Gilead, Janssen, and Boehringer Ingelheim.

                J.M. received support from the EU-funded IDAMS consortium (EC 21803). E.B. is funded by the MRC as an MRC Senior Clinical Fellow, as well as the Oxford Martin School and Oxford NIHR BRC. G.C. is supported in part by Imperial College Biomedical Research Centre. E.B. and G.C. are part of the STOP-HCV consortium.


                These authors contributed equally.

                Additional Supporting Information may be found at

                Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
                Blackwell Publishing Ltd (Oxford, UK )
                January 2015
                28 July 2014
                : 61
                : 1
                : 77-87
                © 2014 The Authors. H epatology published by Wiley on behalf of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Viral Hepatitis

                Gastroenterology & Hepatology


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