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      Agitated behaviors among elderly people with dementia living in their home in Taiwan

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          Limited research has been conducted on agitated behavior in Taiwan and dementia among community-dwelling elderly. Therefore, this study focused on community elderly with dementia and a factor analysis of an inventory of their agitated behaviors was conducted.

          Patients and methods

          Participants (N=221) completed the Chinese Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, community form. Item analysis and exploratory factor analysis assessed reliability, validity, and the underlying factor structure.


          Five factors were extracted and accounted for 44.53% of the total variance. This study classified agitated behaviors into 5 main subtypes: physically agitated behaviors, destructive behaviors, verbally agitated behaviors, handling things behavior, and aggressive behaviors.


          The results indicate that differences in the agitated behavior of elderly with dementia exist with respect to cultural background and setting. This novel research and its findings serve as a reference for assessing the agitated behaviors of elderly with dementia living in their homes. Applications may exist for other countries with Chinese/Taiwanese populations.

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          Most cited references 20

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          A description of agitation in a nursing home.

          Agitation is a significant problem for elderly persons, their families, and their caregivers. This study describes the agitated behaviors of 408 nursing home residents. Nurses who were familiar with the residents used a 7-point scale to rate how often each resident manifested 29 agitated behaviors. Each resident was rated independently by three nurses, one from each of the three nursing shifts. Results showed that agitated behaviors occurred most often during the day shift (i.e., when residents were most active), and least often during the night shift. The most frequently exhibited agitated behaviors were general restlessness, pacing, repetitious sentences, requests for attention, complaining, negativism, and cursing. Most agitated behaviors correlated significantly across shifts, suggesting that such behaviors occur and reoccur throughout the 24-hour day. Factor analysis yielded three syndromes of agitation: aggressive behavior, physically nonaggressive behavior, and verbally agitated behavior. These results provide a foundation for further studies of agitation in elderly persons.
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            Mental and behavioral disturbances in dementia: findings from the Cache County Study on Memory in Aging.

            The authors report findings from a study of 5,092 community residents who constituted 90% of the elderly resident population of Cache County, Utah. The 5,092 participants, who were 65 years old or older, were screened for dementia. Based on the results of this screen, 1,002 participants (329 with dementia and 673 without dementia) underwent comprehensive neuropsychiatric examinations and were rated on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, a widely used method for ascertainment and classification of dementia-associated mental and behavioral disturbances. Of the 329 participants with dementia, 214 (65%) had Alzheimer's disease, 62 (19%) had vascular dementia, and 53 (16%) had another DSM-IV dementia diagnosis; 201 (61%) had exhibited one or more mental or behavioral disturbances in the past month. Apathy (27%), depression (24%), and agitation/aggression (24%) were the most common in participants with dementia. These disturbances were almost four times more common in participants with dementia than in those without. Only modest differences were observed in the prevalence of mental or behavioral disturbances in different types of dementia or at different stages of illness: participants with Alzheimer's disease were more likely to have delusions and less likely to have depression. Agitation/aggression and aberrant motor behavior were more common in participants with advanced dementia. On the basis of their findings in this large community population of elderly people, the authors conclude that a wide range of dementia-associated mental and behavioral disturbances afflict the majority of individuals with dementia. Because of their frequency and their adverse effects on patients and their caregivers, these disturbances should be ascertained and treated in all cases of dementia.
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              Olanzapine treatment of psychotic and behavioral symptoms in patients with Alzheimer disease in nursing care facilities: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The HGEU Study Group.

              Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) commonly exhibit psychosis and behavioral disturbances that impair patient functioning, create caregiver distress, and lead to institutionalization. This study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of olanzapine in treating psychosis and/or agitation/aggression in patients with AD. A multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week study was conducted in 206 elderly US nursing home residents with AD who exhibited psychotic and/or behavioral symptoms. Patients were randomly assigned to placebo or a fixed dose of 5, 10, or 15 mg/d of olanzapine. The primary efficacy measure was the sum of the Agitation/Aggression, Hallucinations, and Delusions items (Core Total) of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home version. Low-dose olanzapine (5 and 10 mg/d) produced significant improvement compared with placebo on the Core Total (-7.6 vs -3.7 [P<.001] and -6.1 vs -3. 7 [P =.006], respectively). Core Total improvement with olanzapine, 15 mg/d, was not significantly greater than placebo. The Occupational Disruptiveness score, reflecting the impact of patients' psychosis and behavioral disturbances on the caregiver, was significantly reduced in the 5-mg/d olanzapine group compared with placebo (-2.7 vs -1.5; P =.008). Somnolence was significantly more common among patients receiving olanzapine (25.0%-35.8%), and gait disturbance occurred in those receiving 5 or 15 mg/d (19.6% and 17.0%, respectively). No significant cognitive impairment, increase in extrapyramidal symptoms, or central anticholinergic effects were found at any olanzapine dose relative to placebo. Low-dose olanzapine (5 and 10 mg/d) was significantly superior to placebo and well tolerated in treating agitation/aggression and psychosis in this population of patients with AD.

                Author and article information

                Clin Interv Aging
                Clin Interv Aging
                Clinical Interventions in Aging
                Clinical Interventions in Aging
                Dove Medical Press
                29 June 2018
                : 13
                : 1193-1199
                [1 ]Department of Gerontological Care and Management, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan, yeaing@
                [2 ]Nursing Department, Taoyuan Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan
                [3 ]School of Nursing, College of Medicine & Healthy Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, yeaing@
                [4 ]Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan, yeaing@
                [5 ]Department of Nursing, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, yeaing@
                [6 ]Chang Gung Dementia Center, Department of Neurology, Chang Gung University and Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yea-Ing L Shyu, School of Nursing, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, Tel +886 3 211 8800 ext 5275, Fax +886 3 211 8400 Email yeaing@
                © 2018 Huang et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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