In recent years, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image target recognition based on the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) has attracted a significant amount of attention. Fully CNN (FCNN) is a structural improvement of the CNN, which features a higher recognition rate than CNN, but it still requires a large number of labeled data in the training process. This study aims to propose a method of SAR image target recognition based on FCNN and Improved Convolutional Auto-Encoder (ICAE), where several parameters of FCNN are initialized by the parameters of the ICAE encoder. These parameters are obtained in the unsupervised training mode. Then, the FCNN is trained by the labeled training samples. The experimental results on 10 kinds of target classification based on the MSTAR datasets show that this method cannot only achieve an average of 98.14% correct recognition rate but also feature a strong anti-noise capability when the labeled training samples are unexpanded.