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      Geographic and Temporal Patterns of Antimicrobial Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Over 20 Years From the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997–2016


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          The SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program was established in 1997 and encompasses over 750 000 bacterial isolates from ≥400 medical centers worldwide. Among the pathogens tested, Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains a common cause of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bloodstream infections and pneumonia in hospitalized patients. In the present study, we reviewed geographic and temporal trends in resistant phenotypes of P. aeruginosa over 20 years of the SENTRY Program.


          From 1997 to 2016, 52 022 clinically significant consecutive isolates were submitted from ≥200 medical centers representing the Asia-Pacific region, Europe, Latin America, and North America. Only 1 isolate per patient per infection episode was submitted. Isolates were identified by standard algorithms and/or matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Susceptibility testing was performed by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methods and interpreted using CLSI and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing 2018 criteria at JMI Laboratories.


          The most common infection from which P. aeruginosa was isolated was pneumonia in hospitalized patients (44.6%) followed by bloodstream infection (27.9%), with pneumonia having a slightly higher rate of MDR (27.7%) than bloodstream infections (23.7%). The region with the highest percentage of MDR phenotypes was Latin America (41.1%), followed by Europe (28.4%). The MDR rates were highest in 2005–2008 and have decreased in the most recent period. Colistin was the most active drug tested (99.4% susceptible), followed by amikacin (90.5% susceptible).


          Over the 20 years of SENTRY Program surveillance, the rate of MDR P. aeruginosa infections has decreased, particularly in Latin America. Whether the trend of decreasing resistance in P. aeruginosa is maintained will be documented in future SENTRY Program and other surveillance reports.

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          Time to Treatment and Mortality during Mandated Emergency Care for Sepsis.

          Background In 2013, New York began requiring hospitals to follow protocols for the early identification and treatment of sepsis. However, there is controversy about whether more rapid treatment of sepsis improves outcomes in patients. Methods We studied data from patients with sepsis and septic shock that were reported to the New York State Department of Health from April 1, 2014, to June 30, 2016. Patients had a sepsis protocol initiated within 6 hours after arrival in the emergency department and had all items in a 3-hour bundle of care for patients with sepsis (i.e., blood cultures, broad-spectrum antibiotic agents, and lactate measurement) completed within 12 hours. Multilevel models were used to assess the associations between the time until completion of the 3-hour bundle and risk-adjusted mortality. We also examined the times to the administration of antibiotics and to the completion of an initial bolus of intravenous fluid. Results Among 49,331 patients at 149 hospitals, 40,696 (82.5%) had the 3-hour bundle completed within 3 hours. The median time to completion of the 3-hour bundle was 1.30 hours (interquartile range, 0.65 to 2.35), the median time to the administration of antibiotics was 0.95 hours (interquartile range, 0.35 to 1.95), and the median time to completion of the fluid bolus was 2.56 hours (interquartile range, 1.33 to 4.20). Among patients who had the 3-hour bundle completed within 12 hours, a longer time to the completion of the bundle was associated with higher risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 1.04 per hour; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.05; P<0.001), as was a longer time to the administration of antibiotics (odds ratio, 1.04 per hour; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.06; P<0.001) but not a longer time to the completion of a bolus of intravenous fluids (odds ratio, 1.01 per hour; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.02; P=0.21). Conclusions More rapid completion of a 3-hour bundle of sepsis care and rapid administration of antibiotics, but not rapid completion of an initial bolus of intravenous fluids, were associated with lower risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).
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            Multi-drug resistance, inappropriate initial antibiotic therapy and mortality in Gram-negative severe sepsis and septic shock: a retrospective cohort study

            Introduction The impact of in vitro resistance on initially appropriate antibiotic therapy (IAAT) remains unclear. We elucidated the relationship between non-IAAT and mortality, and between IAAT and multi-drug resistance (MDR) in sepsis due to Gram-negative bacteremia (GNS). Methods We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study of adult intensive care unit patients with bacteremia and severe sepsis/septic shock caused by a gram-negative (GN) organism. We identified the following MDR pathogens: MDR P. aeruginosa, extended spectrum beta-lactamase and carbapenemase-producing organisms. IAAT was defined as exposure within 24 hours of infection onset to antibiotics active against identified pathogens based on in vitro susceptibility testing. We derived logistic regression models to examine a) predictors of hospital mortality and b) impact of MDR on non-IAAT. Proportions are presented for categorical variables, and median values with interquartile ranges (IQR) for continuous. Results Out of 1,064 patients with GNS, 351 (29.2%) did not survive hospitalization. Non-survivors were older (66.5 (55, 73.5) versus 63 (53, 72) years, P = 0.036), sicker (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (19 (15, 25) versus 16 (12, 19), P <0.001), and more likely to be on pressors (odds ratio (OR) 2.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.12 to 3.68), mechanically ventilated (OR 3.06, 95% CI 2.29 to 4.10) have MDR (10.0% versus 4.0%, P <0.001) and receive non-IAAT (43.4% versus 14.6%, P <0.001). In a logistic regression model, non-IAAT was an independent predictor of hospital mortality (adjusted OR 3.87, 95% CI 2.77 to 5.41). In a separate model, MDR was strongly associated with the receipt of non-IAAT (adjusted OR 13.05, 95% CI 7.00 to 24.31). Conclusions MDR, an important determinant of non-IAAT, is associated with a three-fold increase in the risk of hospital mortality. Given the paucity of therapies to cover GN MDRs, prevention and development of new agents are critical.
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              Epidemiology and carbapenem resistance mechanisms of carbapenem-non-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa collected during 2009-11 in 14 European and Mediterranean countries.

              To evaluate the genetic relatedness and carbapenem resistance mechanisms among carbapenem-non-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa collected during 2009-11 in 14 European and Mediterranean countries. Doripenem-non-susceptible (MIC >2 mg/L) isolates were tested for susceptibility to imipenem, meropenem, doripenem, aztreonam, ceftazidime and cefepime with and without phenyl-arginine-β-naphthylamide (PAβN) (efflux inhibitor) and/or cloxacillin (AmpC inhibitor). Carbapenemase screening was performed by PCR and sequencing. Expression of chromosomal ampC, mexA, mexC, mexE and mexX was determined by quantitative real-time PCR using P. aeruginosa PAO1 or a group of susceptible isolates as baseline. Clonality was evaluated by PFGE and multilocus sequence typing. Among 529 (25.6% overall) carbapenem-non-susceptible P. aeruginosa, 106 were positive for metallo-β-lactamase (MβL) genes encoding VIM-2 (76 strains), VIM-4 (14), VIM-1 (7) and VIM-5 (5). IMP-15 and three new MβLs (IMP-33, VIM-36 and VIM-37) were detected in one strain each. An increasing prevalence of MβL producers was noted in 2011 (30.6%) compared with previous years (13.4% and 12.3% in 2009 and 2010, respectively). Isolates displayed high genetic diversity, with 401 unique profiles detected. CC235 and ST111 were detected among MβL-producing clusters. The PAβN/cloxacillin effect ranged from 90.0% to 56.5%/from 1.3% to 21.2%. OprD decrease/loss was the most prevalent intrinsic mechanism and was detected among 94.9% of the P. aeruginosa, followed by AmpC (44.4%) and MexAB-OprM (20.1%). When using the susceptible group of isolates as baseline, MexAB-OprM became as prevalent as OprD decrease/loss. Increasing MβL prevalence is worrisome in various European countries; however, intrinsic resistance mechanisms in a highly genetically diverse population of carbapenem-non-susceptible P. aeruginosa are probably a matter for greater concern in these countries. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

                Author and article information

                Open Forum Infect Dis
                Open Forum Infect Dis
                Open Forum Infectious Diseases
                Oxford University Press (US )
                March 2019
                15 March 2019
                15 March 2019
                : 6
                : Suppl 1 , Global Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance: 20 Years of Experience with the SENTRY Program
                : S63-S68
                [1 ]JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, Iowa
                [2 ]Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Brazil
                [3 ]University of Athens, Greece
                Author notes
                Correspondence: D. Shortridge, PhD, JMI Laboratories, 345 Beaver Kreek Centre, Suite A, North Liberty, IA 52317 ( dee-shortridge@ 123456jmilabs.com ).
                © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs licence ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial reproduction and distribution of the work, in any medium, provided the original work is not altered or transformed in any way, and that the work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com

                Page count
                Pages: 6
                Funded by: JMI Laboratories
                Supplement Articles

                antimicrobial,multidrug resistance,pseudomonas aeruginosa,surveillance,susceptibility


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