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Los polifenoles, compuestos de origen natural con efectos saludables sobre el sistema cardiovascular Translated title: The polyphenols, naturally occurring compounds with beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease

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Nutrición Hospitalaria

Grupo Arán

Enfermedad cardiovascular, Polifenoles, Salud, Cardiovascular disease, Polyphenols, Health

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      Abstract

      En los últimos años numerosos estudios han avalado los efectos beneficiosos de la ingesta de polifenoles sobre la salud, especialmente sobre el sistema cardiovascular. Esto es importante, porque las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la principal causa de muerte en el mundo. Los efectos de los polifenoles son fundamentalmente consecuencia de sus propiedades antioxidantes. Estos compuestos presentan efectos vasodilatadores, son capaces además de mejorar el perfil lipídico y atenúan la oxidación de las lipoproteínas de baja densidad (LDL). Presentan claros efectos antiinflamatorios y estos compuestos son a su vez capaces de modular los procesos de apoptosis en el endotelio vascular. Esta revisión define desde el punto de vista estructural, los distintos grupos de polifenoles que pueden formarse en los vegetales y actualiza los conocimientos sobre su biodisponibilidad. En ella se recopilan asimismo algunos de los estudios recientes que establecen sus propiedades beneficiosas a nivel cardiovascular.

      Translated abstract

      In recent years, a number of studies have endorsed the beneficial effects of polyphenols intake on health, especially on the cardiovascular system. This is important since cardiovascular diseases are the main death cause worldwide. The effects of polyphenols are mainly due to their antioxidant properties. These compounds present vasodilating effects, and they can improve the lipid profile and lessen the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). They show clear antiinflammatory effects and they can modulate the apoptotic pathways in the vascular endothelium. This review defines from the structural viewpoint the different groups of polyphenols that may occur in vegetables, and updates the knowledge on their bioavailability. Some of the recent studies establishing their beneficial properties at a cardiovascular level are also included.

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      Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability.

      Polyphenols are abundant micronutrients in our diet, and evidence for their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases is emerging. The health effects of polyphenols depend on the amount consumed and on their bioavailability. In this article, the nature and contents of the various polyphenols present in food sources and the influence of agricultural practices and industrial processes are reviewed. Estimates of dietary intakes are given for each class of polyphenols. The bioavailability of polyphenols is also reviewed, with particular focus on intestinal absorption and the influence of chemical structure (eg, glycosylation, esterification, and polymerization), food matrix, and excretion back into the intestinal lumen. Information on the role of microflora in the catabolism of polyphenols and the production of some active metabolites is presented. Mechanisms of intestinal and hepatic conjugation (methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation), plasma transport, and elimination in bile and urine are also described. Pharmacokinetic data for the various polyphenols are compared. Studies on the identification of circulating metabolites, cellular uptake, intracellular metabolism with possible deconjugation, biological properties of the conjugated metabolites, and specific accumulation in some target tissues are discussed. Finally, bioavailability appears to differ greatly between the various polyphenols, and the most abundant polyphenols in our diet are not necessarily those that have the best bioavailability profile. A thorough knowledge of the bioavailability of the hundreds of dietary polyphenols will help us to identify those that are most likely to exert protective health effects.
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        The effects of plant flavonoids on mammalian cells: implications for inflammation, heart disease, and cancer.

        Flavonoids are nearly ubiquitous in plants and are recognized as the pigments responsible for the colors of leaves, especially in autumn. They are rich in seeds, citrus fruits, olive oil, tea, and red wine. They are low molecular weight compounds composed of a three-ring structure with various substitutions. This basic structure is shared by tocopherols (vitamin E). Flavonoids can be subdivided according to the presence of an oxy group at position 4, a double bond between carbon atoms 2 and 3, or a hydroxyl group in position 3 of the C (middle) ring. These characteristics appear to also be required for best activity, especially antioxidant and antiproliferative, in the systems studied. The particular hydroxylation pattern of the B ring of the flavonoles increases their activities, especially in inhibition of mast cell secretion. Certain plants and spices containing flavonoids have been used for thousands of years in traditional Eastern medicine. In spite of the voluminous literature available, however, Western medicine has not yet used flavonoids therapeutically, even though their safety record is exceptional. Suggestions are made where such possibilities may be worth pursuing.
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          The immune system in atherosclerosis.

          Cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of mortality worldwide, is caused mainly by atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of blood vessels. Lesions of atherosclerosis contain macrophages, T cells and other cells of the immune response, together with cholesterol that infiltrates from the blood. Targeted deletion of genes encoding costimulatory factors and proinflammatory cytokines results in less disease in mouse models, whereas interference with regulatory immunity accelerates it. Innate as well as adaptive immune responses have been identified in atherosclerosis, with components of cholesterol-carrying low-density lipoprotein triggering inflammation, T cell activation and antibody production during the course of disease. Studies are now under way to develop new therapies based on these concepts of the involvement of the immune system in atherosclerosis.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Madrid orgnameConsejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) - Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM) orgdiv1Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias de Alimentación (CIAL) España
            Madrid orgnameUniversidad Complutense de Madrid orgdiv1Facultad de Medicina orgdiv2Departamento de Farmacología España
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            nh
            Nutrición Hospitalaria
            Nutr. Hosp.
            Grupo Arán (Madrid, Madrid, Spain )
            0212-1611
            1699-5198
            February 2012
            : 27
            : 1
            : 76-89
            S0212-16112012000100009

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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            Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 144, Pages: 14
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            Product Information: SciELO Spain

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