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      Typing and Species Identification of Clinical Klebsiella Isolates by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

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          ABSTRACT

          Klebsiella pneumoniae and related species are frequent causes of nosocomial infections and outbreaks. Therefore, quick and reliable strain typing is crucial for the detection of transmission routes in the hospital. The aim of this study was to evaluate Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as rapid methods for typing clinical Klebsiella isolates in comparison to whole-genome sequencing (WGS), which was considered the gold standard for typing and identification. Here, 68 clinical Klebsiella strains were analyzed by WGS, FTIR, and MALDI-TOF MS. FTIR showed high discriminatory power in comparison to the WGS reference, whereas MALDI-TOF MS exhibited a low ability to type the isolates. MALDI-TOF mass spectra were further analyzed for peaks that showed high specificity for different Klebsiella species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Klebsiella isolates comprised three different species: K. pneumoniae, K. variicola, and K. quasipneumoniae. Genome analysis showed that MALDI-TOF MS can be used to distinguish K. pneumoniae from K. variicola due to shifts of certain mass peaks. The peaks were tentatively identified as three ribosomal proteins (S15p, L28p, L31p) and one stress response protein (YjbJ), which exhibit amino acid differences between the two species. Overall, FTIR has high discriminatory power to recognize the clonal relationship of isolates, thus representing a valuable tool for rapid outbreak analysis and for the detection of transmission events due to fast turnaround times and low costs per sample. Furthermore, specific amino acid substitutions allow the discrimination of K. pneumoniae and K. variicola by MALDI-TOF MS.

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          A5-miseq: an updated pipeline to assemble microbial genomes from Illumina MiSeq data.

          Open-source bacterial genome assembly remains inaccessible to many biologists because of its complexity. Few software solutions exist that are capable of automating all steps in the process of de novo genome assembly from Illumina data.
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            Klebsiella spp. as Nosocomial Pathogens: Epidemiology, Taxonomy, Typing Methods, and Pathogenicity Factors

            Bacteria belonging to the genus Klebsiella frequently cause human nosocomial infections. In particular, the medically most important Klebsiella species, Klebsiella pneumoniae, accounts for a significant proportion of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections, pneumonia, septicemias, and soft tissue infections. The principal pathogenic reservoirs for transmission of Klebsiella are the gastrointestinal tract and the hands of hospital personnel. Because of their ability to spread rapidly in the hospital environment, these bacteria tend to cause nosocomial outbreaks. Hospital outbreaks of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella spp., especially those in neonatal wards, are often caused by new types of strains, the so-called extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) producers. The incidence of ESBL-producing strains among clinical Klebsiella isolates has been steadily increasing over the past years. The resulting limitations on the therapeutic options demand new measures for the management of Klebsiella hospital infections. While the different typing methods are useful epidemiological tools for infection control, recent findings about Klebsiella virulence factors have provided new insights into the pathogenic strategies of these bacteria. Klebsiella pathogenicity factors such as capsules or lipopolysaccharides are presently considered to be promising candidates for vaccination efforts that may serve as immunological infection control measures.
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              Identification of Klebsiella capsule synthesis loci from whole genome data

              Klebsiella pneumoniae is a growing cause of healthcare-associated infections for which multi-drug resistance is a concern. Its polysaccharide capsule is a major virulence determinant and epidemiological marker. However, little is known about capsule epidemiology since serological typing is not widely accessible and many isolates are serologically non-typeable. Molecular typing techniques provide useful insights, but existing methods fail to take full advantage of the information in whole genome sequences. We investigated the diversity of the capsule synthesis loci (K-loci) among 2503 K . pneumoniae genomes. We incorporated analyses of full-length K-locus nucleotide sequences and also clustered protein-encoding sequences to identify, annotate and compare K-locus structures. We propose a standardized nomenclature for K-loci and present a curated reference database. A total of 134 distinct K-loci were identified, including 31 novel types. Comparative analyses indicated 508 unique protein-encoding gene clusters that appear to reassort via homologous recombination. Extensive intra- and inter-locus nucleotide diversity was detected among the wzi and wzc genes, indicating that current molecular typing schemes based on these genes are inadequate. As a solution, we introduce Kaptive, a novel software tool that automates the process of identifying K-loci based on full locus information extracted from whole genome sequences (https://github.com/katholt/Kaptive). This work highlights the extensive diversity of Klebsiella K-loci and the proteins that they encode. The nomenclature, reference database and novel typing method presented here will become essential resources for genomic surveillance and epidemiological investigations of this pathogen.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Clinical Microbiology
                J Clin Microbiol
                American Society for Microbiology
                0095-1137
                1098-660X
                November 2018
                October 25 2018
                August 22 2018
                : 56
                : 11
                Article
                10.1128/JCM.00843-18
                6204683
                30135233
                f6d28f5e-47aa-4c53-ae16-9d0ce2043818
                © 2018
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