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      Physical Activity and Risk of All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Diabetic Adults From Great Britain: Pooled Analysis of 10 Population-Based Cohorts

      1 , 2 ,   1 , 3 , 1 , 1 , 3 , 1 , 3 , 4
      Diabetes Care
      American Diabetes Association

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          Abstract

          OBJECTIVE

          To examine associations between specific types of physical activity and all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in a large nationally representative sample of adults with diabetes from Great Britain.

          RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

          There were a total of 3,038 participants (675 deaths) with diabetes in the Health Survey for England and the Scottish Health Surveys conducted between 1997 and 2008. Participants aged ≥50 years at baseline were followed up for an average of 75.2 months for all-cause and CVD mortality. Data were collected on self-reported frequency, duration, and intensity of participation in sports and exercise, walking, and domestic physical activity, from which the number of MET-hours/week were derived. Sex-specific medians of time spent in each type of physical activity (for those physically active) were calculated, and Cox proportional hazards regression conducted to examine type-specific associations between the level of physical activity and all-cause and CVD mortality risk.

          RESULTS

          Inverse associations with all-cause and CVD mortality were observed for overall physical activity in a dose-response manner after adjusting for covariates. Compared with those who individuals were inactive, participants who reported some activity, but below the recommended amount, or who met the physical activity recommendations had a 26% (95% CI 39–11) and 35% (95% CI 47–21) lower all-cause mortality, respectively. Similar results were found for below/above median physical activity levels. Sports and exercise participation was inversely associated with all-cause (but not CVD) mortality, as were above average levels of walking. Domestic physical activity was not associated with mortality.

          CONCLUSIONS

          Moderate physical activity levels were associated with better prognosis in diabetic adults.

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          Most cited references34

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          2011 Compendium of Physical Activities: a second update of codes and MET values.

          The Compendium of Physical Activities was developed to enhance the comparability of results across studies using self-report physical activity (PA) and is used to quantify the energy cost of a wide variety of PA. We provide the second update of the Compendium, called the 2011 Compendium. The 2011 Compendium retains the previous coding scheme to identify the major category headings and specific PA by their rate of energy expenditure in MET. Modifications in the 2011 Compendium include cataloging measured MET values and their source references, when available; addition of new codes and specific activities; an update of the Compendium tracking guide that links information in the 1993, 2000, and 2011 compendia versions; and the creation of a Web site to facilitate easy access and downloading of Compendium documents. Measured MET values were obtained from a systematic search of databases using defined key words. The 2011 Compendium contains 821 codes for specific activities. Two hundred seventeen new codes were added, 68% (561/821) of which have measured MET values. Approximately half (317/604) of the codes from the 2000 Compendium were modified to improve the definitions and/or to consolidate specific activities and to update estimated MET values where measured values did not exist. Updated MET values accounted for 73% of all code changes. The Compendium is used globally to quantify the energy cost of PA in adults for surveillance activities, research studies, and, in clinical settings, to write PA recommendations and to assess energy expenditure in individuals. The 2011 Compendium is an update of a system for quantifying the energy cost of adult human PA and is a living document that is moving in the direction of being 100% evidence based.
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            Physical activity advice only or structured exercise training and association with HbA1c levels in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

            Regular exercise improves glucose control in diabetes, but the association of different exercise training interventions on glucose control is unclear. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) assessing associations of structured exercise training regimens (aerobic, resistance, or both) and physical activity advice with or without dietary cointervention on change in hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) in type 2 diabetes patients. MEDLINE, Cochrane-CENTRAL, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, LILACS, and SPORTDiscus databases were searched from January 1980 through February 2011. RCTs of at least 12 weeks' duration that evaluated the ability of structured exercise training or physical activity advice to lower HbA(1c) levels as compared with a control group in patients with type 2 diabetes. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed quality of the included studies. Of 4191 articles retrieved, 47 RCTs (8538 patients) were included. Pooled mean differences in HbA(1c) levels between intervention and control groups were calculated using a random-effects model. Overall, structured exercise training (23 studies) was associated with a decline in HbA(1c) level (-0.67%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.84% to -0.49%; I(2), 91.3%) compared with control participants. In addition, structured aerobic exercise (-0.73%; 95% CI, -1.06% to -0.40%; I(2), 92.8%), structured resistance training (-0.57%; 95% CI, -1.14% to -0.01%; I(2), 92.5%), and both combined (-0.51%; 95% CI, -0.79% to -0.23%; I(2), 67.5%) were each associated with declines in HbA(1C) levels compared with control participants. Structured exercise durations of more than 150 minutes per week were associated with HbA(1c) reductions of 0.89%, while structured exercise durations of 150 minutes or less per week were associated with HbA(1C) reductions of 0.36%. Overall, interventions of physical activity advice (24 studies) were associated with lower HbA(1c) levels (-0.43%; 95% CI, -0.59% to -0.28%; I(2), 62.9%) compared with control participants. Combined physical activity advice and dietary advice was associated with decreased HbA(1c) (-0.58%; 95% CI, -0.74% to -0.43%; I(2), 57.5%) as compared with control participants. Physical activity advice alone was not associated with HbA(1c) changes. Structured exercise training that consists of aerobic exercise, resistance training, or both combined is associated with HbA(1c) reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes. Structured exercise training of more than 150 minutes per week is associated with greater HbA(1c) declines than that of 150 minutes or less per week. Physical activity advice is associated with lower HbA(1c), but only when combined with dietary advice.
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              IDF diabetes atlas: global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2011 and 2030.

              Diabetes is an increasingly important condition globally and robust estimates of its prevalence are required for allocating resources. Data sources from 1980 to April 2011 were sought and characterised. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to select the most appropriate study or studies for each country, and estimates for countries without data were modelled. A logistic regression model was used to generate smoothed age-specific estimates which were applied to UN population estimates for 2011. A total of 565 data sources were reviewed, of which 170 sources from 110 countries were selected. In 2011 there are 366 million people with diabetes, and this is expected to rise to 552 million by 2030. Most people with diabetes live in low- and middle-income countries, and these countries will also see the greatest increase over the next 19 years. This paper builds on previous IDF estimates and shows that the global diabetes epidemic continues to grow. Recent studies show that previous estimates have been very conservative. The new IDF estimates use a simple and transparent approach and are consistent with recent estimates from the Global Burden of Disease study. IDF estimates will be updated annually. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabetes Care
                American Diabetes Association
                0149-5992
                1935-5548
                April 01 2014
                March 08 2014
                April 01 2014
                March 08 2014
                : 37
                : 4
                : 1016-1023
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, U.K.
                [2 ]Escuela de Kinesiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Diego Portales, Santiago, Chile
                [3 ]Physical Activity Research Group, Division of Population Health, University College London, London, U.K.
                [4 ]Prevention Research Collaboration, Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
                Article
                10.2337/dc13-1816
                24652727
                f6d6d672-4c8e-4062-be4a-392ba3c537b7
                © 2014

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/


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