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      Prevalence, Characteristics and Outcomes of People Aged 65 Years and Over with an Incidental Rise in Cardiac Troponin I

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          Abstract

          Background: Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a sensitive and specific marker of acute cardiac damage. We examined the prevalence, characteristics and outcome of incidental cTnI rises in older patients. Methods: One hundred and eighty-seven consecutive patients aged 65 years or over with a raised cTnI on admission at least 8 h after symptom onset were categorised into: (1) ST-elevation myocardial infarction, (2) other acute coronary syndromes (ACS), (3) other recognised non-ACS causes of cTnI rise and (4) non-ACS with no other identifiable cause (an incidental finding). The number of readmissions and deaths for each group was measured at 30 and 90 days. Results: Age range = 65–98 years. Male = 55.6%. Fifty-four percent had a raised cTnI due to non-ACS illnesses, whilst in 18% it was an incidental finding. The latter group was relatively older and had a significantly lower degree of cTnI rise (U = 1718.5, p = 0.002), but a higher readmission and mortality rate compared to the other groups (categories 1–3) for both follow-up periods. Conclusions: Incidental cTnI rise is common in older patients and is associated with a poorer prognosis compared to ACS or a recognised non-ACS condition. Future research should attempt to evaluate the significance of such incidental rises in elderly patients.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Cardiac-specific troponin I levels to predict the risk of mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

          In patients with acute coronary syndromes, it is desirable to identify a sensitive serum marker that is closely related to the degree of myocardial damage, provides prognostic information, and can be measured rapidly. We studied the prognostic value of cardiac troponin I levels in patients with unstable angina or non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. In a multicenter study, blood specimens from 1404 symptomatic patients were analyzed for cardiac troponin I, a serum marker not detected in the blood of healthy persons. The relation between mortality at 42 days and the level of cardiac troponin I in the specimen obtained on enrollment was determined both before and after adjustment for baseline characteristics. The mortality rate at 42 days was significantly higher in the 573 patients with cardiac troponin I levels of at least 0.4 ng per milliliter (21 deaths, or 3.7 percent) than in the 831 patients with cardiac troponin I levels below 0.4 ng per milliliter (8 deaths, or 1.0 percent; P or = 65 years). In patients with acute coronary syndromes, cardiac troponin I levels provide useful prognostic information and permit the early identification of patients with an increased risk of death.
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            Cardiac troponin T levels for risk stratification in acute myocardial ischemia. GUSTO IIA Investigators.

            The prognosis of patients hospitalized with acute myocardial ischemia is quite variable. We examined the value of serum levels of cardiac troponin T, serum creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) levels, and electrocardiographic abnormalities for risk stratification in patients with acute myocardial ischemia. We studied 855 patients within 12 hours of the onset of symptoms. Cardiac troponin T levels, CK-MB levels, and electrocardiograms were analyzed in a blinded fashion at the core laboratory. We used logistic regression to assess the usefulness of baseline levels of cardiac troponin T and CK-MB and the electrocardiographic category assigned at admission-ST-segment elevation, ST-segment depression, T-wave inversion, or the presence of confounding factors that impair the detection of ischemia (bundle-branch block and paced rhythms)-in predicting outcome. On admission, 289 of 801 patients with base-line serum samples had elevated troponin T levels (> 0.1 ng per milliliter). Mortality within 30 days was significantly higher in these patients than in patients with lower levels of troponin T (11.8 percent vs. 3.9 percent, P < 0.001). The troponin T level was the variable most strongly related to 30-day mortality (chi-square = 21, P < 0.001), followed by the electrocardiographic category (chi-square = 14, P = 0.003) and the CK-MB level (chi-square = 11, P = 0.004). Troponin T levels remained significantly predictive of 30-day mortality in a model that contained the electrocardiographic categories and CK-MB levels (chi-square = 9.2, P = 0.027). The cardiac troponin T level is a powerful, independent risk marker in patients who present with acute myocardial ischemia. It allows further stratification of risk when combined with standard measures such as electrocardiography and the CK-MB level.
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              Emergency room triage of patients with acute chest pain by means of rapid testing for cardiac troponin T or troponin I.

              Evaluation of patients with acute chest pain in emergency rooms is time-consuming and expensive, and it often results in uncertain diagnoses. We prospectively investigated the usefulness of bedside tests for the detection of cardiac troponin T and troponin I in the evaluation of patients with acute chest pain. In 773 consecutive patients who had had acute chest pain for less than 12 hours without ST-segment elevation on their electrocardiograms, troponin T and troponin I status (positive or negative) was determined at least twice by sensitive, qualitative bedside tests based on the use of specific monoclonal antibodies. Testing was performed on arrival and four or more hours later so that one sample was taken at least six hours after the onset of pain. The troponin T results were made available to the treating physicians. Troponin T tests were positive in 123 patients (16 percent), and troponin I tests were positive in 171 patients (22 percent). Among 47 patients with evolving myocardial infarction, troponin T tests were positive in 44 (94 percent) and troponin I tests were positive in all 47. Among 315 patients with unstable angina, troponin T tests were positive in 70 patients (22 percent), and troponin I tests were positive in 114 patients (36 percent). During 30 days of follow-up, there were 20 deaths and 14 nonfatal myocardial infarctions. Troponin T and troponin I proved to be strong, independent predictors of cardiac events. The event rates in patients with negative tests were only 1.1 percent for troponin T and 0.3 percent for troponin I. Bedside tests for cardiac-specific troponins are highly sensitive for the early detection of myocardial-cell injury in acute coronary syndromes. Negative test results are associated with low risk and allow rapid and safe discharge of patients with an episode of acute chest pain from the emergency room.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2008
                April 2008
                10 October 2007
                : 110
                : 1
                : 62-67
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Medicine for the Elderly, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, bSchool of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich, cClinical Gerontology Unit and Lewin Stroke Unit, School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, and dCentre for Applied Medical Statistics, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, IPH, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
                Article
                109408 Cardiology 2008;110:62–67
                10.1159/000109408
                17934271
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 2, References: 29, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Research

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