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      Steroid Receptor Coactivator SRC-1 Exhibits High Expression in Steroid-Sensitive Brain Areas Regulating Reproductive Behaviors in the Quail Brain

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          The steroid receptor coactivator SRC-1 modulates ligand-dependent transactivation of several nuclear receptors, including the receptors for sex steroid hormones. Reducing the expression of SRC-1 by injection of specific antisense oligonucleotides markedly inhibits the effects of estrogens of the sexual differentiation of brain and behavior in rats and inhibits the activation of female sexual behavior in adult female rats. SRC-1 thus appears to be involved in both the development and activation of sexual behavior. In the Japanese quail brain, we amplified by RT-PCR a 3,411-bp fragment extending from the HLH domain to the activating domain-2 of the protein. The quail SRC-1 is closely related to the mammalian (m) SRC-1 and contains a high proportion of GC nucleotides (62.5%). Its amino acid sequence presents 70% identity with mammalian SRC-1 and contains the three conserved LXXLL boxes involved in the interaction with nuclear receptors. In both males and females, RT-PCR demonstrates a similarly high level of expression in the telencephalon, diencephalon, optic lobes, brain stem, spinal cord, pituitary, liver, kidney, adrenal gland, heart, lung, gonads and gonoducts. Males express significantly higher levels of SRC-1 in the preoptic area-hypothalamus than females. In both sexes, lower levels of expression are observed in the cerebellum and muscles. In situhybridization utilizing a mixture of four digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotides confirms at the cellular level the widespread distribution of SRC-1 mRNA in the brain and a particularly dense expression in steroid-sensitive areas that play a key role in the control of male sexual behavior. These data confirm the presence and describe for the first time the SRC-1 distribution in the brain of an avian species. They confirm its broad, nearly ubiquitous, distribution in the entire body including the brain as could be expected for a coactivator that regulates to the action of many nuclear receptors. However this distribution is heterogeneous in the brain and sexually differentiated in at least some areas. The very dense expression of SRC-1 in limbic and mesencephalic nuclei that are associated with the control of male sexual behavior is consistent with the notion that this coactivator plays a significant role in the activation of this behavior.

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          Most cited references 39

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          A signature motif in transcriptional co-activators mediates binding to nuclear receptors.

          The binding of lipophilic hormones, retinoids and vitamins to members of the nuclear-receptor superfamily modifies the DNA-binding and transcriptional properties of these receptors, resulting in the activation or repression of target genes. Ligand binding induces conformational changes in nuclear receptors and promotes their association with a diverse group of nuclear proteins, including SRC-1/p160, TIF-2/GRIP-1 and CBP/p300 which function as co-activators of transcription, and RIP-140, TIF-1 and TRIP-1/SUG-1 whose functions are unclear. Here we report that a short sequence motif LXXLL (where L is leucine and X is any amino acid) present in RIP-140, SRC-1 and CBP is necessary and sufficient to mediate the binding of these proteins to liganded nuclear receptors. We show that the ability of SRC-1 to bind the oestrogen receptor and enhance its transcriptional activity is dependent upon the integrity of the LXXLL motifs and on key hydrophobic residues in a conserved helix (helix 12) of the oestrogen receptor that are required for its ligand-induced activation function. We propose that the LXXLL motif is a signature sequence that facilitates the interaction of different proteins with nuclear receptors, and is thus a defining feature of a new family of nuclear proteins.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
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            A CBP integrator complex mediates transcriptional activation and AP-1 inhibition by nuclear receptors.

             Hannah Glass,  L. Xu,  Y Kamei (1996)
            Nuclear receptors regulate gene expression by direct activation of target genes and inhibition of AP-1. Here we report that, unexpectedly, activation by nuclear receptors requires the actions of CREB-binding protein (CBP) and that inhibition of AP-1 activity is the apparent result of competition for limiting amounts of CBP/p300 in cells. Utilizing distinct domains, CBP directly interacts with the ligand-binding domain of multiple nuclear receptors and with the p160 nuclear receptor coactivators, which upon cloning have proven to be variants of the SRC-1 protein. Because CBP represents a common factor, required in addition to distinct coactivators for function of nuclear receptors, CREB, and AP-1, we suggest that CBP/p300 serves as an integrator of multiple signal transduction pathways within the nucleus.
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              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              Comparative distribution of estrogen receptor-? and -? mRNA in the rat central nervous system


                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                November 2002
                02 December 2002
                : 76
                : 5
                : 297-315
                aUniversity of Liège, Center for Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, Research Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, and Laboratory of Neurochemistry, Liège, Belgium; bThe Johns Hopkins University, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Baltimore, Md., USA
                66624 Neuroendocrinology 2002;76:297–315
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 8, References: 108, Pages: 19
                Reproductive Neuroendocrinology


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