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      Presence and Cybersickness in Virtual Reality Are Negatively Related: A Review


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          In order to take advantage of the potential offered by the medium of virtual reality (VR), it will be essential to develop an understanding of how to maximize the desirable experience of “presence” in a virtual space (“being there”), and how to minimize the undesirable feeling of “cybersickness” (a constellation of discomfort symptoms experienced in VR). Although there have been frequent reports of a possible link between the observer’s sense of presence and the experience of bodily discomfort in VR, the amount of literature that discusses the nature of the relationship is limited. Recent research has underlined the possibility that these variables have shared causes, and that both factors may be manipulated with a single approach. This review paper summarizes the concepts of presence and cybersickness and highlights the strengths and gaps in our understanding about their relationship. We review studies that have measured the association between presence and cybersickness, and conclude that the balance of evidence favors a negative relationship between the two factors which is driven principally by sensory integration processes. We also discuss how system immersiveness might play a role in modulating both presence and cybersickness. However, we identify a serious absence of high-powered studies that aim to reveal the nature of this relationship. Based on this evidence we propose recommendations for future studies investigating presence, cybersickness, and other related factors.

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          From presence to consciousness through virtual reality.

          Immersive virtual environments can break the deep, everyday connection between where our senses tell us we are and where we are actually located and whom we are with. The concept of 'presence' refers to the phenomenon of behaving and feeling as if we are in the virtual world created by computer displays. In this article, we argue that presence is worthy of study by neuroscientists, and that it might aid the study of perception and consciousness.
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            A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology.

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              Toward a More Robust Theory and Measure of Social Presence: Review and Suggested Criteria


                Author and article information

                Front Psychol
                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychol.
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                04 February 2019
                : 10
                1Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo , Waterloo, ON, Canada
                2The Games Institute, University of Waterloo , Waterloo, ON, Canada
                Author notes

                Edited by: Maria V. Sanchez-Vives, August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBAPS), Spain

                Reviewed by: Mariano Alcañiz, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain; Bruno Herbelin, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland; Massimo Bergamasco, Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies, Italy

                *Correspondence: Séamas Weech, sweech@ 123456uwaterloo.ca

                This article was submitted to Human-Media Interaction, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology

                Copyright © 2019 Weech, Kenny and Barnett-Cowan.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 194, Pages: 19, Words: 0


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