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      Emerging approaches in Parkinson’s disease – adjunctive role of safinamide

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          Abstract

          Ongoing neuronal death in Parkinson’s disease (PD) causes an altered neurotransmission of various biogenic amines, particularly dopamine. As these changes do not follow a distinct pattern, they vary individually, and are differently pronounced. As a result, a heterogeneous onset of motor and nonmotor features occurs in each patient with PD during the whole course of the disease. PD actually describes a set of distinct diseases that manifest themselves in clinical syndromes with certain similarities but also great differences. This clinical picture responds to drugs with a broad spectrum of modes of actions better than to compounds with an exclusive focus on specific receptor subtypes. Therefore, safinamide is an ideal candidate for treatment of patients with PD, since its pharmacological profile includes reversible monoamine oxidase-B inhibition, blockade of voltage-dependent sodium channels, modulation of calcium channels, and inhibition of glutamate release. Safinamide is applied only once daily. Its oral dose ranges from 50 to 100 mg. Safinamide was well tolerated and safe in the clinical development program that demonstrated the amelioration of motor symptoms and OFF phenomena by safinamide when combined with dopamine agonists or levodopa. In the real world of maintenance of patients with PD, effects of safinamide application resemble therapy with classical monoamine oxidase inhibitors or amantadine in combination with other dopamine-substituting drugs. Safinamide is becoming increasingly available in the EU despite complex approval and pricing scenarios.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Slower progression of Parkinson's disease with ropinirole versus levodopa: The REAL-PET study.

          Preclinical studies suggest ropinirole (a D2/D3 dopamine agonist) may be neuroprotective in Parkinson's disease (PD), and a pilot clinical study using (18)F-dopa positron emission tomography (PET) suggested a slower loss of striatal dopamine storage with ropinirole compared with levodopa. This prospective, 2-year, randomized, double-blind, multinational study compared the rates of loss of dopamine-terminal function in de novo patients with clinical and (18)F-dopa PET evidence of early PD, randomized 1 to 1 to receive either ropinirole or levodopa. The primary outcome measure was reduction in putamen (18)F-dopa uptake (Ki) between baseline and 2-year PET. Of 186, 162 randomized patients were eligible for analysis. A blinded, central, region-of-interest analysis showed a significantly lower reduction (p = 0.022) in putamen Ki over 2 years with ropinirole (-13.4%; n = 68) compared with levodopa (-20.3%; n = 59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65-13.06). Statistical parametric mapping localized lesser reductions in (18)F-dopa uptake in the putamen and substantia nigra with ropinirole. The greatest Ki decrease in each group was in the putamen (ropinirole, -14.1%; levodopa, -22.9%; 95% CI, 4.24-13.3), but the decrease was significantly lower with ropinirole compared with levodopa (p < 0.001). Ropinirole is associated with slower progression of PD than levodopa as assessed by (18)F-dopa PET.
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            Prevalence of Parkinson's disease in Europe: A collaborative study of population-based cohorts. Neurologic Diseases in the Elderly Research Group.

            The results of seven population-based studies were examined separately and pooled to obtain age- and sex-specific estimates of the prevalence of PD. An in-person screening instrument and diagnostic clinical examination were used to detect potential PD cases. The overall prevalence (per 100 population) in persons 65 years of age and older was 1.8, with an increase from 0.6 for those age 65 to 69 years to 2.6 for those 85 to 89 years. There were no sex differences in prevalence of PD.
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              Parkinson's disease and intensive exercise therapy--a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

              To evaluate and compare the effect of 3 intensive exercise therapy modalities - Resistance Training (RT), Endurance Training (ET) and Other Intensive Training Modalities (OITM) - in Parkinson's Disease (PD). Design A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2016
                02 August 2016
                : 12
                : 1151-1160
                Affiliations
                Department of Neurology, Alexianer St Joseph Hospital Berlin-Weißensee, Berlin, Germany
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Thomas Müller, Department of Neurology, Alexianer St Joseph Hospital Berlin-Weißensee, Gartenstraße 1, 13088 Berlin, Germany, Tel +49 30 9279 0223, Fax +49 30 9279 0703, Email th.mueller@ 123456alexianer.de
                Article
                tcrm-12-1151
                10.2147/TCRM.S86393
                4977086
                27536120
                © 2016 Müller. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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