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      Design, development, drug-likeness, and molecular docking studies of novel piperidin-4-imine derivatives as antitubercular agents

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          Abstract

          Tuberculosis remains one of the major grievous diseases worldwide. The emergence of resistance to antituberculosis drugs emphasize the necessity to discover new therapeutic agents for preferential tuberculosis therapy. In this study, various novel 1-(1H-benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl) piperidin-4-imine derivatives were developed and checked for favorable pharmacokinetic parameters based on drug-likeness explained by Lipinski’s rule of five. All 20 of the novel chemical entities were found to possess a favorable pharmacokinetic profile since they were not violating Lipinski’s rule of five. The title compounds were also synthesized, characterized, and tested for ex vivo antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv ( ATCC27294). The results revealed that four compounds (2-[1-(1H-benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl)piperidin-4-ylidene] hydrazinecarbothioamide, 2-[1-(1H-benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl)piperidin-4-ylidene]-N-hydroxy-hydrazinecarbo-thioamide, 1-[1-(1H-benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl)piperidin-4-ylidene]guanidine, and 2-[1-(1H-benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl)piperidin-4-ylidene]hydrazinecarboxamide) were the most potent (minimum inhibitory concentration 6.25 µg/mL) antitubercular agents, with less toxicity (selectivity index more than 10). The molecules were also subjected to three-dimensional molecular docking on the crystal structure of enoyl-acyl carrier protein (EACP) reductase enzyme (code 1ZID, Protein Data Bank), which represents a good prediction of the interactions between the molecules and EACP reductase with minimum binding energy.

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            The structural biology of type II fatty acid biosynthesis.

            The type II fatty acid synthetic pathway is the principal route for the production of membrane phospholipid acyl chains in bacteria and plants. The reaction sequence is carried out by a series of individual soluble proteins that are each encoded by a discrete gene, and the pathway intermediates are shuttled between the enzymes as thioesters of an acyl carrier protein. The Escherichia coli system is the paradigm for the study of this system, and high-resolution X-ray and/or NMR structures of representative members of every enzyme in the type II pathway are now available. The structural biology of these proteins reveals the specific three-dimensional features of the enzymes that explain substrate recognition, chain length specificity, and the catalytic mechanisms that define their roles in producing the multitude of products generated by the type II system. These structures are also a valuable resource to guide antibacterial drug discovery.
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              Global tuberculosis control: lessons learnt and future prospects.

              Tuberculosis (TB) is an ancient disease, but not a disease of the past. After disappearing from the world public health agenda in the 1960s and 1970s, TB returned in the early 1990s for several reasons, including the emergence of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and increases in drug resistance. More than 100 years after the discovery of the tubercle bacillus by Robert Koch, what is the status of TB control worldwide? Here, we review the evolution of global TB control policies, including DOTS (directly observed therapy, short course) and the Stop TB Strategy, and assess whether the challenges and obstacles faced by the public health community worldwide in developing and implementing this strategy can aid future action towards the elimination of TB.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                21 July 2015
                : 9
                : 3779-3787
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India
                [2 ]Bharathi College of Pharmacy, Bharathi Nagara, Karnataka, India
                [3 ]Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India
                [4 ]Manipal Centre of Virus Research, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India
                [5 ]Pharmacy Group, Birla Institute of Technology and Science-Pilani, Hyderabad Campus, Hyderabad, India
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Suvarna Ganesh Kini, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India, Tel +91 820 292 2482 ext 225, Fax +91 820 257 1998, Email suvarna.gk@ 123456manipal.edu
                Article
                dddt-9-3779
                10.2147/DDDT.S83047
                4516184
                © 2015 Revathi et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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