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      Effect of long-term high-fat diet intake on peripheral insulin sensibility, blood pressure, and renal function in female rats


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          This study determines whether 8-week high-fat diet (HFD) consumption alters insulin sensitivity, kidney function, and blood pressure (BP) in female rats when compared with standard rodent diet (ND) intake in gender- and age-matched rats.


          The present study investigates, in female Wistar HanUnib rats, the effect of long-term high-fat fed group (HFD) compared with standard chow on BP by an indirect tail-cuff method using an electrosphygmomanometer, insulin and glucose function, and kidney function by creatinine and lithium clearances.


          The current study shows glucose tolerance impairment, as demonstrated by increased fasting blood glucose (ND: 78±2.8 vs. HFD: 87±3.8 mg/dL) associated with reduced insulin secretion (ND: 0.58±0.07 vs. HFD: 0.40±0.03 ng/mL) in 8-week female HFD-treated rats. The incremental area under the curve (AUC, ND: 1,4558.0±536.0 vs. HFD: 1,6507.8±661.9), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, and the first-order rate constant for the disappearance of glucose ( Kitt) were significantly enhanced in 8-week HFD-treated rats compared with age-matched ND group (respectively, P=0.03, P=0.002, and P<0.0001). The current study also shows a significantly higher systolic BP measured in 5 and 8 weeks posttreatment in HFD (5-week HFD-treated: 155.25±10.54 mmHg and 8-week HFD-treated: 165±5.8 mmHg) ( P=0.0001), when compared to BP values in 5-week ND, 137±4.24 mmHg and 8-week ND, 131.75±5.8 mmHg age-matched group. Otherwise, the glomerular filtration rate and renal sodium handling evaluated by FE Na, FEP Na and FEPP Na, were unchanged in both groups.


          We may conclude that 8-week female HFD-fed rats compared with ND group stimulate harmful effects, such as BP rise and peripheral glucose intolerance. The increased BP occurs through insulin resistance and supposedly decreased vasodilatation response without any change on renal function.

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          Diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6J mice causes increased renal lipid accumulation and glomerulosclerosis via a sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c-dependent pathway.

          Obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with glomerulosclerosis and proteinuria, but the mechanisms are not known. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is altered renal lipid metabolism and increased expression of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) in a model of diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J mice that were fed a high fat, 60 kcal % saturated (lard) fat diet (HFD) developed obesity, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia compared with those that were fed a low fat, 10 kcal % fat diet (LFD). In contrast, A/J mice were resistant when fed the same diet. C57BL/6J mice with HFD exhibited significantly higher levels of renal SREBP-1 and SREBP-2 expression than those mice with LFD, whereas in A/J mice there were no changes with the same treatment. The increases in SREBP-1 and SREBP-2 expression in C57BL/6J mice resulted in renal accumulation of triglyceride and cholesterol. There were also significant increases in the renal expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), type IV collagen, and fibronectin, resulting in glomerulosclerosis and proteinuria. To determine a role for SREBPs per se in modulating renal lipid metabolism and glomerulosclerosis we performed studies in SREBP-1c(-/-) mice. In contrast to control mice, in the SREBP-1c(-/-) mice with HFD the accumulation of triglyceride was prevented, as well as the increases in PAI-1, VEGF, type IV collagen, and fibronectin expression. Our results therefore suggest that diet-induced obesity causes increased renal lipid accumulation and glomerulosclerosis in C57BL/6J mice via an SREBP-1c-dependent pathway.
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            Is Open Access

            Age, Obesity, and Sex Effects on Insulin Sensitivity and Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Function

            OBJECTIVE Reductions in insulin sensitivity in conjunction with muscle mitochondrial dysfunction have been reported to occur in many conditions including aging. The objective was to determine whether insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction are directly related to chronological age or are related to age-related changes in body composition. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twelve young lean, 12 young obese, 12 elderly lean, and 12 elderly obese sedentary adults were studied. Insulin sensitivity was measured by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and skeletal muscle mitochondrial ATP production rates (MAPRs) were measured in freshly isolated mitochondria obtained from vastus lateralis biopsy samples using the luciferase reaction. RESULTS Obese participants, independent of age, had reduced insulin sensitivity based on lower rates of glucose infusion during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. In contrast, age had no independent effect on insulin sensitivity. However, the elderly participants had lower muscle MAPRs than the young participants, independent of obesity. Elderly participants also had higher levels inflammatory cytokines and total adiponectin. In addition, higher muscle MAPRs were also noted in men than in women, whereas glucose infusion rates were higher in women. CONCLUSIONS The results demonstrate that age-related reductions in insulin sensitivity are likely due to an age-related increase in adiposity rather than a consequence of advanced chronological age. The results also indicate that an age-related decrease in muscle mitochondrial function is neither related to adiposity nor insulin sensitivity. Of interest, a higher mitochondrial ATP production capacity was noted in the men, whereas the women were more insulin sensitive, demonstrating further dissociation between insulin sensitivity and muscle mitochondrial function.
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              Insulin resistance and heart failure: molecular mechanisms.

              This article addresses the issue of insulin resistance and associated reductions in cardiac insulin metabolic signaling, which is emerging as a major factor in the development of heart failure, and assumes more importance because of an epidemic increase in obesity and the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome in our aging population. The effects of cardiac insulin resistance are exacerbated by metabolic, endocrine, and cytokine alterations associated with systemic insulin resistance. Understanding the molecular mechanisms linking insulin resistance and heart failure may help to design new and more effective mechanism-based drugs to improve myocardial and systemic insulin resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Food Nutr Res
                Food Nutr Res
                Food & Nutrition Research
                Co-Action Publishing
                12 February 2016
                : 60
                : 10.3402/fnr.v60.28536
                Laboratório de Metabolismo Hidrossalino, Núcleo de Medicina e Cirurgia Experimental, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil
                Author notes
                [* ] José A. R. Gontijo, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, State University of Campinas, 13083-887 Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, Email: gontijo@ 123456fcm.unicamp.br
                © 2016 Noemi A. V. Roza et al.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license.

                : 14 May 2015
                : 16 January 2016
                : 16 January 2016
                Original Article

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                blood pressure,glucose tolerance test,high-fat diet,insulin sensitivity,renal function


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