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      Enhancement of Adherence to Therapeutic and Lifestyle Recommendations Among Hemodialysis Patients: An Umbrella Review of Interventional Strategies

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          To systematically retrieve and condense the best possible evidence on the successful interventions that targeted enhancement of therapeutic and lifestyle recommendations adherence in hemodialysis patients (HDPs).


          An umbrella review of interventional studies.

          Data Sources

          A comprehensive search of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Ovid, PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE and Web of science databases to identify relevant publications in 2000–2018 (June) timeframe.

          Study Selection

          Two reviewers independently applied inclusion criteria to select potential systematic reviews assessing the successful interventions that targeted enhancement of therapeutic and lifestyle recommendations adherence in HDPs. Data were summarized for information about the first author(s)’ names, year of publication, type(s) of the intervention and output variables, main findings and also the applied quality appraisal tools in the retrieved research evidence.

          Data Extraction

          Eligible studies were selected and data were extracted independently by two reviewers. The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI)’s critical appraisal tool for systematic reviews was used to assess the quality of the identified publications, and discrepancies were resolved by consensus with a third reviewer.

          Data Synthesis

          Thirteen systematic reviews (12 solely systematic reviews and 1 systematic review with meta-analyses) were eligible to be enrolled in the study. The range of interventions that had been reported to boost therapeutic and lifestyle recommendations adherence in HDPs’ included psycho-educational programs, physical activity enhancement initiatives, information technology (IT)-based interventions and aromatherapy. Depression, diet biomarkers and interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) were among the myriad of output variables that had been measured as proxies to assess impacts of the implemented interventions. Psycho-educational interventions were among the prevalent initiatives to boost therapeutic and lifestyle recommendations adherence among the HDPs.


          This umbrella review revealed that various intervention approaches and strategies can be used for HDPs' better therapeutic and lifestyle recommendations adherence with considerable methodological heterogeneity. The pinpointed research evidence is also supporting application of multifaceted interventional modalities to reach an improved acquiescence form the patients’ side and their families. Further studies are recommended to address the interactions across various interventions in discordant socio-cultural contexts.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Nonadherence in hemodialysis: associations with mortality, hospitalization, and practice patterns in the DOPPS.

          Nonadherence among hemodialysis patients compromises dialysis delivery, which could influence patient morbidity and mortality. The Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) provides a unique opportunity to review this problem and its determinants on a global level. Nonadherence was studied using data from the DOPPS, an international, observational, prospective hemodialysis study. Patients were considered nonadherent if they skipped one or more sessions per month, shortened one or more sessions by more than 10 minutes per month, had a serum potassium level openface>6.0 mEq/L, a serum phosphate level openface>7.5 mg/dL (>2.4 mmol/L), or interdialytic weight gain (IDWG)>5.7% of body weight. Predictors of nonadherence were identified using logistic regression. Survival analysis used the Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for case-mix. Skipping treatment was associated with increased mortality [relative risk (RR) = 1.30, P = 0.01], as were excessive IDWG (RR = 1.12, P = 0.047) and high phosphate levels (RR = 1.17, P = 0.001). Skipping also was associated with increased hospitalization (RR = 1.13, P = 0.04), as were high phosphate levels (RR = 1.07, P = 0.05). Larger facility size (per 10 patients) was associated with higher odds ratios (OR) of skipping (OR = 1.03, P = 0.06), shortening (OR = 1.03, P = 0.05), and IDWG (OR = 1.02, P = 0.07). An increased percentage of highly trained staff hours was associated with lower OR of skipping (OR = 0.84 per 10%, P = 0.02); presence of a dietitian was associated with lower OR of excessive IDWG (OR = 0.75, P = 0.08). Nonadherence was associated with increased mortality risk (skipping treatment, excessive IDWG, and high phosphate) and with hospitalization risk (skipping, high phosphate). Certain patient/facility characteristics also were associated with nonadherence.
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            Effects of exercise in the whole spectrum of chronic kidney disease: a systematic review

            Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health problem. Although physical activity is essential for the prevention and treatment of most chronic diseases, exercise is rarely prescribed for CKD patients. The objective of the study was to search for and appraise evidence on the effectiveness of exercise interventions on health endpoints in CKD patients. A systematic review was performed of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) designed to compare exercise with usual care regarding effects on the health of CKD patients. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central, Clinical Trials registry, and proceedings of major nephrology conference databases were searched, using terms defined according to the PICO (Patient, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome) methodology. RCTs were independently evaluated by two reviewers. A total of 5489 studies were assessed for eligibility, of which 59 fulfilled inclusion criteria. Most of them included small samples, lasted from 8 to 24 weeks and applied aerobic exercises. Three studies included only kidney transplant patients, and nine included pre-dialysis patients. The remaining RCTs allocated hemodialysis patients. The outcome measures included quality of life, physical fitness, muscular strength, heart rate variability, inflammatory and nutritional markers and progression of CKD. Most of the trials had high risk of bias. The strongest evidence is for the effects of aerobic exercise on improving physical fitness, muscular strength and quality of life in dialysis patients. The benefits of exercise in dialysis patients are well established, supporting the prescription of physical activity in their regular treatment. RCTs including patients in earlier stages of CKD and after kidney transplantation are urgently required, as well as studies assessing long-term outcomes. The best exercise protocol for CKD patients also remains to be established.
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              Current Psychosomatic Practice.

              Psychosomatic research has advanced over the past decades in dealing with complex biopsychosocial phenomena and may provide new effective modalities of patient care. Among psychosocial variables affecting individual vulnerability, course, and outcome of any medical disease, the role of chronic stress (allostatic load/overload) has emerged as a crucial factor. Assessment strategies include the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research. They are presented here in an updated version based on insights derived from studies carried out so far and encompass allostatic overload, type A behavior, alexithymia, the spectrum of maladaptive illness behavior, demoralization, irritable mood, and somatic symptoms secondary to a psychiatric disorder. Macroanalysis is a helpful tool for identifying the relationships between biological and psychosocial variables and the individual targets for medical intervention. The personalized and holistic approach to the patient includes integration of medical and psychological therapies in all phases of illness. In this respect, the development of a new psychotherapeutic modality, Well-Being Therapy, seems to be promising. The growth of subspecialties, such as psychooncology and psychodermatology, drives towards the multidisciplinary organization of health care to overcome artificial boundaries. There have been major transformations in health care needs in the past decades. From psychosomatic medicine, a land of innovative hypotheses and trends, many indications for changes in the current practice of medicine are now at hand. The aim of this critical review is to outline current and potential clinical applications of psychosomatic methods.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                06 April 2020
                : 16
                : 233-243
                [1 ]Health Education & Promotion Department, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences , Tabriz, Iran
                [2 ]Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences , Tabriz, Iran
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Abdolreza Shaghaghi Health Education & Promotion Department, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences , Golgasht Ave., Tabriz, IranTel +98 41 33376227 Email shaghaghir@tbzmed.ac.ir
                © 2020 Zhianfar et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 49, Pages: 11
                This research was supported partially by Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (grant number: 5-D-193090- 1397-06-10).


                exercise, cognitive, psychosocial, adherence, intervention, hemodialysis


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