Blog
About

  • Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: not found

Generation of hypoimmunogenic human pluripotent stem cells

Read this article at

ScienceOpenPublisher
Bookmark
      There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

      Abstract

      Polymorphic HLAs form the primary immune barrier to cell therapy. In addition, innate immune surveillance impacts cell engraftment, yet a strategy to control both, adaptive and innate immunity, is lacking. Here we employed multiplex genome editing to specifically ablate the expression of the highly polymorphic HLA-A/-B/-C and HLA class II in human pluripotent stem cells. Furthermore, to prevent innate immune rejection and further suppress adaptive immune responses, we expressed the immunomodulatory factors PD-L1, HLA-G, and the macrophage “don’t-eat me” signal CD47 from the AAVS1 safe harbor locus. Utilizing in vitro and in vivo immunoassays, we found that T cell responses were blunted. Moreover, NK cell killing and macrophage engulfment of our engineered cells were minimal. Our results describe an approach that effectively targets adaptive as well as innate immune responses and may therefore enable cell therapy on a broader scale.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 43

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      HLA-E binds to natural killer cell receptors CD94/NKG2A, B and C.

      The protein HLA-E is a non-classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule of limited sequence variability. Its expression on the cell surface is regulated by the binding of peptides derived from the signal sequence of some other MHC class I molecules. Here we report the identification of ligands for HLA-E. We constructed tetramers in which recombinant HLA-E and beta2-microglobulin were refolded with an MHC leader-sequence peptide, biotinylated, and conjugated to phycoerythrin-labelled Extravidin. This HLA-E tetramer bound to natural killer (NK) cells and a small subset of T cells from peripheral blood. On transfectants, the tetramer bound to the CD94/NKG2A, CD94/NKGK2B and CD94/NKG2C NK cell receptors, but did not bind to the immunoglobulin family of NK cell receptors (KIR). Surface expression of HLA-E was enough to protect target cells from lysis by CD94/NKG2A+ NK-cell clones. A subset of HLA class I alleles has been shown to inhibit killing by CD94/NKG2A+ NK-cell clones. Only the HLA alleles that possess a leader peptide capable of upregulating HLA-E surface expression confer resistance to NK-cell-mediated lysis, implying that their action is mediated by HLA-E, the predominant ligand for the NK cell inhibitory receptor CD94/NKG2A.
        Bookmark
        • Record: found
        • Abstract: not found
        • Article: not found

        Six-of-the-best: unique contributions of γδ T cells to immunology.

        γδ T cells are a unique and conserved population of lymphocytes that have been the subject of a recent explosion of interest owing to their essential contributions to many types of immune response and immunopathology. But what does the integration of recent and long-established studies really tell us about these cells and their place in immunology? The time is ripe to consider the evidence for their unique and crucial functions. We conclude that whereas B cells and αβ T cells are commonly thought to contribute primarily to the antigen-specific effector and memory phases of immunity, γδ T cells are distinct in that they combine conventional adaptive features (inherent in their T cell receptors and pleiotropic effector functions) with rapid, innate-like responses that can place them in the initiation phase of immune reactions. This underpins a revised perspective on lymphocyte biology and the regulation of immunogenicity.
          Bookmark
          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          CD47 is upregulated on circulating hematopoietic stem cells and leukemia cells to avoid phagocytosis.

          Macrophages clear pathogens and damaged or aged cells from the blood stream via phagocytosis. Cell-surface CD47 interacts with its receptor on macrophages, SIRPalpha, to inhibit phagocytosis of normal, healthy cells. We find that mobilizing cytokines and inflammatory stimuli cause CD47 to be transiently upregulated on mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitors just prior to and during their migratory phase, and that the level of CD47 on these cells determines the probability that they are engulfed in vivo. CD47 is also constitutively upregulated on mouse and human myeloid leukemias, and overexpression of CD47 on a myeloid leukemia line increases its pathogenicity by allowing it to evade phagocytosis. We conclude that CD47 upregulation is an important mechanism that provides protection to normal HSCs during inflammation-mediated mobilization, and that leukemic progenitors co-opt this ability in order to evade macrophage killing.
            Bookmark

            Author and article information

            Journal
            Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
            Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
            Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
            0027-8424
            1091-6490
            April 30 2019
            : 201902566
            10.1073/pnas.1902566116
            © 2019

            Free to read

            http://www.pnas.org/site/misc/userlicense.xhtml

            Comments

            Comment on this article