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      Resistance to malaria through structural variation of red blood cell invasion receptors

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      Science

      American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

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          Abstract

          The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum invades human red blood cells via interactions between host and parasite surface proteins. By analyzing genome sequence data from human populations, including 1269 individuals from sub-Saharan Africa, we identify a diverse array of large copy number variants affecting the host invasion receptor genes GYPA and GYPB. We find that a nearby association with severe malaria is explained by a complex structural rearrangement involving the loss of GYPB and gain of two GYPB-A hybrid genes, which encode a serologically distinct blood group antigen known as Dantu. This variant reduces the risk of severe malaria by 40% and has recently risen in frequency in parts of Kenya, yet it appears to be absent from west Africa. These findings link structural variation of red blood cell invasion receptors with natural resistance to severe malaria.

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          Most cited references 40

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          The landscape of recombination in African Americans

          Recombination, together with mutation, is the ultimate source of genetic variation in populations. We leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing-over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P<10−245). We identify a 17 base pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of African-enriched alleles of PRDM9.
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            Multiple instances of ancient balancing selection shared between humans and chimpanzees.

            Instances in which natural selection maintains genetic variation in a population over millions of years are thought to be extremely rare. We conducted a genome-wide scan for long-lived balancing selection by looking for combinations of SNPs shared between humans and chimpanzees. In addition to the major histocompatibility complex, we identified 125 regions in which the same haplotypes are segregating in the two species, all but two of which are noncoding. In six cases, there is evidence for an ancestral polymorphism that persisted to the present in humans and chimpanzees. Regions with shared haplotypes are significantly enriched for membrane glycoproteins, and a similar trend is seen among shared coding polymorphisms. These findings indicate that ancient balancing selection has shaped human variation and point to genes involved in host-pathogen interactions as common targets.
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              Is Open Access

              Kalign2: high-performance multiple alignment of protein and nucleotide sequences allowing external features

              In the growing field of genomics, multiple alignment programs are confronted with ever increasing amounts of data. To address this growing issue we have dramatically improved the running time and memory requirement of Kalign, while maintaining its high alignment accuracy. Kalign version 2 also supports nucleotide alignment, and a newly introduced extension allows for external sequence annotation to be included into the alignment procedure. We demonstrate that Kalign2 is exceptionally fast and memory-efficient, permitting accurate alignment of very large numbers of sequences. The accuracy of Kalign2 compares well to the best methods in the case of protein alignments while its accuracy on nucleotide alignments is generally superior. In addition, we demonstrate the potential of using known or predicted sequence annotation to improve the alignment accuracy. Kalign2 is freely available for download from the Kalign web site (http://msa.sbc.su.se/).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Science
                Science
                American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
                0036-8075
                1095-9203
                May 2017
                :
                :
                : eaam6393
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Malaria Genomic Epidemiology Network
                Article
                10.1126/science.aam6393
                28522690

                Comments

                Malaria vaccine development collection topic 5) Identifying and developing the new generation of malaria vaccines - Unraveling host-parasite interactions. See https://www.scienceopen.com/collection/malariavaccine

                This study identified genes related to structural variation of red blood cell invasion receptors associated with protection against severe malaria.

                2018-10-10 00:14 UTC
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