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      Insight into Polyphenol and Gut Microbiota Crosstalk: Are Their Metabolites the Key to Understand Protective Effects against Metabolic Disorders?

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          Abstract

          Lifestyle factors, especially diet and nutrition, are currently regarded as essential avenues to decrease modern-day cardiometabolic disorders (CMD), including obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Many groups around the world attribute these trends, at least partially, to bioactive plant polyphenols given their anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. In fact, polyphenols can prevent or reverse the progression of disease processes through many distinct mechanisms. In particular, the crosstalk between polyphenols and gut microbiota, recently unveiled thanks to DNA-based tools and next generation sequencing, unravelled the central regulatory role of dietary polyphenols and their intestinal micro-ecology metabolites on the host energy metabolism and related illnesses. The objectives of this review are to: (1) provide an understanding of classification, structure, and bioavailability of dietary polyphenols; (2) underline their metabolism by gut microbiota; (3) highlight their prebiotic effects on microflora; (4) discuss the multifaceted roles of their metabolites in CMD while shedding light on the mechanisms of action; and (5) underscore their ability to initiate host epigenetic regulation. In sum, the review clearly documents whether dietary polyphenols and micro-ecology favorably interact to promote multiple physiological functions on human organism.

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          Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome

          Long-term diet influences the structure and activity of the trillions of microorganisms residing in the human gut 1–5 , but it remains unclear how rapidly and reproducibly the human gut microbiome responds to short-term macronutrient change. Here, we show that the short-term consumption of diets composed entirely of animal or plant products alters microbial community structure and overwhelms inter-individual differences in microbial gene expression. The animal-based diet increased the abundance of bile-tolerant microorganisms (Alistipes, Bilophila, and Bacteroides) and decreased the levels of Firmicutes that metabolize dietary plant polysaccharides (Roseburia, Eubacterium rectale, and Ruminococcus bromii). Microbial activity mirrored differences between herbivorous and carnivorous mammals 2 , reflecting trade-offs between carbohydrate and protein fermentation. Foodborne microbes from both diets transiently colonized the gut, including bacteria, fungi, and even viruses. Finally, increases in the abundance and activity of Bilophila wadsworthia on the animal-based diet support a link between dietary fat, bile acids, and the outgrowth of microorganisms capable of triggering inflammatory bowel disease 6 . In concert, these results demonstrate that the gut microbiome can rapidly respond to altered diet, potentially facilitating the diversity of human dietary lifestyles.
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            A human gut microbial gene catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing.

            To understand the impact of gut microbes on human health and well-being it is crucial to assess their genetic potential. Here we describe the Illumina-based metagenomic sequencing, assembly and characterization of 3.3 million non-redundant microbial genes, derived from 576.7 gigabases of sequence, from faecal samples of 124 European individuals. The gene set, approximately 150 times larger than the human gene complement, contains an overwhelming majority of the prevalent (more frequent) microbial genes of the cohort and probably includes a large proportion of the prevalent human intestinal microbial genes. The genes are largely shared among individuals of the cohort. Over 99% of the genes are bacterial, indicating that the entire cohort harbours between 1,000 and 1,150 prevalent bacterial species and each individual at least 160 such species, which are also largely shared. We define and describe the minimal gut metagenome and the minimal gut bacterial genome in terms of functions present in all individuals and most bacteria, respectively.
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              Linking long-term dietary patterns with gut microbial enterotypes.

              Diet strongly affects human health, partly by modulating gut microbiome composition. We used diet inventories and 16S rDNA sequencing to characterize fecal samples from 98 individuals. Fecal communities clustered into enterotypes distinguished primarily by levels of Bacteroides and Prevotella. Enterotypes were strongly associated with long-term diets, particularly protein and animal fat (Bacteroides) versus carbohydrates (Prevotella). A controlled-feeding study of 10 subjects showed that microbiome composition changed detectably within 24 hours of initiating a high-fat/low-fiber or low-fat/high-fiber diet, but that enterotype identity remained stable during the 10-day study. Thus, alternative enterotype states are associated with long-term diet.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Antioxidants (Basel)
                Antioxidants (Basel)
                antioxidants
                Antioxidants
                MDPI
                2076-3921
                13 October 2020
                October 2020
                : 9
                : 10
                : 982
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Research Centre, Sainte-Justine University Health Center, Montreal, QC H3T 1C5, Canada; mireille.koudoufio@ 123456umontreal.ca (M.K.); francis.feldman@ 123456umontreal.ca (F.F.); schohraya.spahis@ 123456gmail.com (S.S.); delvine@ 123456sympatico.ca (E.D.)
                [2 ]Department of Nutrition, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada
                [3 ]Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Quebec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada; yves.desjardins@ 123456fsaa.ulaval.ca
                [4 ]Department of Biochemistry, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada
                [5 ]Department of Pediatrics, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: emile.levy@ 123456recherche-ste-justine.qc.ca ; Tel.: +1-514-345-7783
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3130-7748
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9983-7027
                Article
                antioxidants-09-00982
                10.3390/antiox9100982
                7601951
                33066106
                f728b792-e354-4098-9913-bc85fb4f7ead
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 16 September 2020
                : 30 September 2020
                Categories
                Review

                dietary polyphenols,metabolites,oxidative stress,inflammation,epigenetics,microflora,cardiometabolic complications

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