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      Shrinking the room for invasive ventilation in hypercapnic respiratory failure

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          Abstract

          Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) was introduced as an alternative to invasive mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure caused from exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the 1980s, and its use gradually rose worldwide. Seventy-eight patients (57 males, mean age 78.3 ± 9.2 years) undergoing NIV were evaluated. Of them, 48 (62.3%) had acute hypercapnic respiratory failure because of a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation, and the remaining 30 had acute hypercapnic respiratory failure from other causes, mainly cardiac failure. All patients were treated by NIV using the bi-level positive airway pressure set up at high pressure/high backup rate. NIV was successful in 67 subjects (85.9%) and the patients were discharged, 57 of whom continued NIV at home and ten had spontaneous breathing. NIV was unsuccessful in eleven patients, ten of whom died and one was successfully treated by invasive mechanical ventilation. Significant differences were detected for a higher basal Glasgow Coma Scale score in successfully treated patients ( P = 0.007), a higher basal Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation score in unsuccessfully treated patients ( P = 0.004), and a lower pH after 1 hour in unsuccessfully treated patients ( P = 0.015). These findings show a very high rate of success of NIV in patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure not only from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease but also from cardiac failure. This suggests that the use of invasive mechanical ventilation may be further reduced, with a decrease in its known complications as well.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Does noninvasive positive pressure ventilation improve outcome in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure? A systematic review.

          The results of studies on noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure unrelated to cardiogenic pulmonary edema have been inconsistent. To assess the effect of NPPV on the rate of endotracheal intubation, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, and mortality for patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure not due to cardiogenic pulmonary edema. We searched the databases of MEDLINE (1980 to October 2003) and EMBASE (1990 to October 2003). Additional data sources included the Cochrane Library, personal files, abstract proceedings, reference lists of selected articles, and expert contact. We included studies if a) the design was a randomized controlled trial; b) patients had acute hypoxemic respiratory failure not due to cardiogenic pulmonary edema; c) the interventions compared noninvasive ventilation and standard therapy with standard therapy alone; and d) outcomes included need for endotracheal intubation, length of intensive care unit or hospital stay, or intensive care unit or hospital survival. In duplicate and independently, we abstracted data to evaluate methodological quality and results. The addition of NPPV to standard care in the setting of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure reduced the rate of endotracheal intubation (absolute risk reduction 23%, 95% confidence interval 10-35%), ICU length of stay (absolute reduction 2 days, 95% confidence interval 1-3 days), and ICU mortality (absolute risk reduction 17%, 95% confidence interval 8-26%). However, trial results were significantly heterogeneous. Randomized trials suggest that patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure are less likely to require endotracheal intubation when NPPV is added to standard therapy. However, the effect on mortality is less clear, and the heterogeneity found among studies suggests that effectiveness varies among different populations. As a result, the literature does not support the routine use of NPPV in all patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure.
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            Non-invasive ventilation in elderly patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure: a randomised controlled trial.

            older patients usually receive less invasive and costly hospital care, even if they meet the criteria for Intensive Care Unit admission or have a 'do not intubate'(DNI) order. The aim of this randomised, controlled trial was to assess the effectiveness of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) versus the standard medical therapy (SMT) in reducing the need of intubation, improving survival and reducing respiratory distress in very old patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF). eighty-two patients aged >75 years (mean age 81.3 ± 3.5 years) were randomised to receive NIV or SMT. three respiratory units. the primary outcome was the rate of meeting the endotracheal intubation (ETI) criteria. Secondary outcomes were the mortality rate, the respiratory rate, dyspnoea score, arterial blood gases. the rate of meeting the ETI criteria was lower in the NIV group compared with the SMT group (7.3 versus 63.4%, respectively; P < 0.001), as was the mortality rate [(odds ratios) OR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.19-0.83; P = 0.014]. Twenty-two of 41 SMT patients with DNI orders received NIV as a rescue therapy. The mortality rate in this subgroup was comparable with the NIV group and significantly lower compared with patients receiving ETI (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.18-1.92 versus 4.03, 95% CI: 2.35-6.94, respectively; P = 0.009). Arterial blood gases, respiratory rate and dyspnoea improved significantly faster with NIV than with SMT. compared with SMT, NIV decreased the rate of meeting the ETI criteria and the mortality rate of very old patients with AHRF. NIV should be offered as an alternative to patients considered poor candidates for intubation and those with a DNI order.
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              High pressure versus high intensity noninvasive ventilation in stable hypercapnic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized crossover trial

              Background High-intensity (high-pressure and high backup rate) noninvasive ventilation has recently been advocated for the management of stable hypercapnic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the relative contributions of high inspiratory pressure and high backup rate to ventilator adherence and physiological outcome have not been investigated. Methods Patients with stable hypercapnic COPD (daytime PaCO2 > 6 kPa) and nocturnal hypoventilation were enrolled. Patients were randomly allocated to high-pressure and high backup rate (high-intensity) and high-pressure and low backup rate (high-pressure) for a 6-week period. At the end of the first treatment period, patients were switched to the alternative treatment. The primary outcome measure was mean nightly ventilator usage. Results Twelve patients were recruited, with seven completing the 12-week trial protocol. The mean patient age was 71 ± 8 years, with a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) of 50% ± 13% and FEV1 of 32% ± 12%. The baseline PaCO2 and PaO2 were 8.6 ± 1.7 kPa and 7.3 ± 1.4 kPa, respectively. There was no significant difference demonstrated in mean nightly ventilator usage between the high-intensity and high-pressure groups (difference of 4 minutes; 95% confidence interval −45 to 53; P = 0.9). Furthermore, there were no differences in any of the secondary endpoints, with the exception of the respiratory domain of the Severe Respiratory Insufficiency questionnaire, which was lower in the high-intensity arm than in the high-pressure arm (57 ± 11 versus 69 ± 16; P < 0.05). Conclusion There was no additional benefit, in terms of night-time ventilator adherence or any of the other measured parameters, demonstrated by addition of a high backup rate to high-pressure noninvasive ventilation. These data suggest that it is the high-pressure component of the high-intensity noninvasive ventilation approach that plays the important therapeutic role in the management of hypercapnic respiratory failure in COPD patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2013
                2013
                15 March 2013
                : 8
                : 135-137
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Pneumology Unit, Ospedale Civile, Vimercate
                [2 ]Pulmonary Rehabilitation, Istituti Clinici di Perfezionamento, Milan, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Cristoforo Incorvaia Viale Molise 6, 20137 Milan, Italy Tel +39 2 551 3852 Fax +39 2 5799 3315 Email cristoforo.incorvaia@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                copd-8-135
                10.2147/COPD.S41374
                3600934
                23516004
                © 2013 Scarpazza et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Rapid Communication

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