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      Healthcare malpractice and continuing HIV outbreaks in Pakistan

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      BMJ Global Health

      BMJ Publishing Group

      HIV, Pakistan, malpractice

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          Abstract

          Summary box In April this year, a large-scale HIV outbreak was reported in Larkana, Pakistan, where to date almost 600 children and 100 adults have been found infected. Past such outbreaks, in Gujrat and Sargodha, as a result of uncontrolled transmission, have rapidly expanded into full-blown concentrated epidemics. In this article we discuss how a multidisciplinary approach, involving public health and molecular epidemiology experts, needs to be employed to characterise high-risk practices and populations, including the youth, where the infection is currently emerging. Harm reduction efforts will then need to be refined and focused on raising awareness and providing vigilant healthcare to those vulnerable populations. The number of adults and children living with HIV in Pakistan, 150 000 in 2017, is anticipated to double by the year 2020.1 While the major high-risk groups include transgenders, injection drug users and men who have sex with men,1 outbreaks as a result of healthcare malpractice appear to be unusually frequent. In recent years, three such large-scale outbreaks were reported in the cities of Gujrat,2 Sargodha3 and Larkana4 5 (figure 1). Published reports on these outbreaks are sketchy about the origins and routes of transmission, mainly because accurate evidence-based information is missing. Figure 1 Map of Pakistan showing hot spots of reported HIV outbreaks. In Gujrat district, the infection, initially discovered when 88 out of 246 (36%) individuals tested positive in an HIV screening camp, is believed to have been endemic for over a decade, silently transmitting among the residents of the Jalalpur Jattan village. Of the individuals interviewed from this village, only 36% and 34% were aware that HIV transmission could occur by, respectively, sexual contact and blood transfusion. Such lack of awareness most likely led to the recently reported increase in HIV prevalence in the same village—750 positive cases in 2018.6 Despite efforts made to identify the causes of transmission through contact tracing, only indirect indications were found for transmission through contaminated needles.2 While some evidence of sexual transmission was there, an overwhelming number of the study participants reported use of injectable medicine for treatment of illness (96%) and invasive surgical (26%)/dental (40%) procedures. Use of unsafe injection practice is speculated to be a major cause of this endemic.2 Epidemic in the village of Kot Imrana, Sargodha, is relatively new. First reported in 2018 with a prevalence rate of 1.3%, the epidemic grew rapidly, reaching 13% in 2019.3 Although some evidence of sexual transmission was found, interviews from patients implicated the origin of transmission to be reuse of contaminated needles by a quack who died from AIDS in 2018. As many as 5000 quacks are reported to be practising in the district of Sargodha. The epidemic is clearly growing at an alarming rate; 50 other villages in the vicinity of Sargodha are speculated to be hot spots of HIV infection, with malpractice by quacks being a major threat.3 The most recent HIV outbreak was discovered in the city of Larkana, in April 2019. Unfortunately, the infected individuals included 604 children and 135 adults.5 Most of the HIV-positive children had HIV-negative parents, indicating that the infection was acquired through horizontal transmission, most probably through contaminated needles used at the private healthcare facilities.7 Pursuing that line of enquiry, on May 29, Larkana police registered cases of medical negligence against 24 privately practising doctors.8 In addition to malpractice by quacks, other modes of transmission in this outbreak are speculated to be use of contaminated razor blades9 and unsafe circumcisions at barber shops.3 While healthcare malpractice appears to be the leading cause for the initiation of the above-described outbreaks, lack of awareness about HIV transmission has played the biggest role in facilitating these epidemics and will continue to be a major hurdle in any future efforts for harm reduction. According to a United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS 2017 survey, condom usage was low among major high-risk groups, such as transgenders (24%), injection drug users (15%) and men who have sex with men (22%). Knowledge about HIV prevention among young men and women (aged 15–24) was, respectively, 5.2% and 4.2%.10 The rate at which the epidemic is currently growing in the rural areas alludes to serious gaps in the harm reduction efforts. It is imperative to educate vulnerable masses in the rural areas about treatment and further prevention of transmission. Considering that a major part of the infected population is younger individuals, it is important to target harm reduction efforts to that particular group. In the face of prevailing unawareness, not only the epidemic will continue to spread but will likely give rise to HIV variants that may be hard to treat. Implications of malpractice in the initiation and lack of awareness in further transmission appear to be the common threads that run through the above-described three stories. However, aside from the interviews from the infected patients, there is no clear-cut evidence, generated through scientifically rigorous analyses, as to the origin and mode of transmission of this infection. In this day and age, molecular analysis of viral sequences is being widely used to study origins and routes of transmission, among other things. Classical cases exist where phylogenetic analyses were successfully used as evidence in courts of law.11 In Pakistan as well, phylodynamics has been previously employed to trace origins 12 and transmission routes of HIV infection. Phylodynamic analysis of HIV gene sequences can reveal information of public health relevance, including origin and hot spots of emerging infections, transmission bridging across demographics and behavioural subgroups, and high-risk groups/practices responsible for the outbreaks/transmission. The government of Pakistan will have to make a concerted effort in putting together a multidisciplinary approach, bringing together experts of public health, molecular epidemiology and bioinformatics. To generate corroborating evidence of origin and further transmission of these frequent outbreaks, a systematic analysis needs to be conducted that combines data gleaned from patients’ interviews and demographic profiling with those generated using phylogenetic analysis of HIV sequences obtained from their blood samples. Implementation of health regulations to control malpractice will prevent future outbreaks, whereas raising awareness among the already infected population will control further transmission and emergence of drug resistance. But before the harm reduction strategies are designed and implemented, it is imperative to characterise the high-risk populations/practices involved in starting and spreading the outbreak. Vulnerable populations thus identified should then be the focus of raising HIV awareness and providing vigilant healthcare and treatment.

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          HIV-1 subtype A infection in a community of intravenous drug users in Pakistan

          Background Data on the subtypes of HIV in a population help in predicting the potential foci of epidemic, tracking the routes of infection and following the patterns of the virus' genetic divergence. Globally, the most prevalent HIV infection is the HIV-1 subtype C. In Asia, predominant subtypes of HIV-1 are B, C, and CRF-01AE. During the last few years, HIV prevalence in Pakistan has taken the form of a concentrated epidemic in at least two high risk groups, namely, Intravenous Drug Users (IDUs) and Male Sex Workers (MSWs). Factors that have facilitated the proliferation of HIV infection include transmission through a large number of repatriates and needle-sharing intravenous drug users, unscreened blood transfusions, and sexual illiteracy. The HIV subtypes infecting Pakistani populations have not been explored to date. In this study, we analyzed HIV-1 subtypes from in a high-risk community of IDUs in Karachi, the largest city of Pakistan. Methods Samples were collected from 34 IDUs after their informed consent. In addition, the study subjects were administered a questionnaire regarding their sexual behavior and travel history. For HIV analysis, DNA was extracted from the samples and analyzed for HIV types and subtypes using subtype-specific primers in a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results from this PCR were further confirmed using the Heteroduplex Mobility Assay (HMA). Results We found HIV-1 subtype A in all the 34 samples analyzed. A few of the study subjects were found to have a history of travel and stay in the United Arab Emirates. The same subjects also admitted to having contact with commercial sex workers during their stay abroad. Conclusion Our study therefore shows clade A HIV-1 to be prevalent among the IDUs in Karachi. As the prevalence of HIV in Pakistan continues to rise, more work needs to be done to track the infection, and to analyze the strains of HIV spreading through the country.
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            HIV-1 and HCV sequences from Libyan outbreak

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              HIV/AIDS outbreak investigation in Jalalpur Jattan (JPJ), Gujrat, Pakistan

              Background: In June–July 2008 a non-governmental organization (NGO) in Jalalpur Jattan (JPJ), Gujrat, Pakistan arranged two voluntary HIV screening camps after numerous HIV-infected persons reported to their treatment center in Lahore; 88 (35.8%) of 246 persons screened in those camps were positive by rapid test. Intense media coverage made the residents of JPJ hostile to further inquiries. The Pakistan Field Epidemiology Training and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP) was requested by the Provincial AIDS Control Program to carry out an epidemiological investigation. Methods: HIV-positive persons or family members of patients who died of AIDS and consented to be interviewed during the period 15 December 2008 to 2 January 2009 were investigated. Enhanced contact tracing was done to identify additional cases. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data regarding clinical history, risk factors, and HIV knowledge and practices. The national HIV/STI Referral Laboratory collected blood samples for HIV serology and molecular studies independently following pre- and post-counseling. Results: A total of 53 HIV-infected persons were investigated. Out of these, 47 (88.7%) were alive at the time of investigation and 27 (50.9%) of the cases were female with 6 children aged 10 years or less. Median age was 35 years (mean 34.7, range 3–70). Most frequent symptoms were unexplained fever 42 (79.2%), diarrhea 34 (64.15%) and skin infections 27 (50.9%); 13 (24.5%) had co-infection with tuberculosis (TB) and 10 (18.9%) with hepatitis (B or C). Use of injections 51 (96.2%), dental procedures 21 (40%) and barber shop visits among males 18 (72%) were common risk factors. Extramarital sex was reported by 4 (9.4%). Only 19 (35.8%) were aware that HIV can be sexually transmitted and 18 (34%) were aware of HIV transmission by blood transfusion. Phylogenetic analysis revealed HIV infection in this group was HIV-1 Subtype A, transmitted over a decade, and the situation is endemic rather than an outbreak. Conclusion: The investigation indicates high rates of HIV infection in JPJ. Unlike other studies from Pakistan, a high proportion of cases in females and children less than 10 years of age were observed. Socio-cultural norms and stigmatization limited in-depth investigation of sexual and behavioral practices and history of drug abuse. A shift of HIV infection from high-risk groups to the general population was seen and requires vigilant surveillance besides targeted health education, clinical management, lab facilities for diagnosis and monitoring, and voluntary counseling and testing services to limit disease spread.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMJ Glob Health
                BMJ Glob Health
                bmjgh
                bmjgh
                BMJ Global Health
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                2059-7908
                2019
                12 November 2019
                : 4
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]departmentBiomedical Sciences , Nazarbayev University School of Medicine , Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan
                [2 ]Aga Khan University , Karachi, Pakistan
                [3 ]departmentBiomedical Sciences , Nazarbayev University School of Medicine , Astana, Kazakhstan
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Dr Syed Ali; syed.ali@ 123456nu.edu.kz
                Article
                bmjgh-2019-001920
                10.1136/bmjgh-2019-001920
                6861107
                © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

                This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See:  http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

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                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100012632, Nazarbayev University;
                Award ID: SOM2019002
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                malpractice, pakistan, hiv

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