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The dielectric properties of biological tissues: II. Measurements in the frequency range 10 Hz to 20 GHz.

Physics in medicine and biology

Adipose Tissue, physiology, Animals, Bone and Bones, Brain, Cartilage, Electric Conductivity, Electrophysiology, methods, Female, Heart, Humans, Kidney, Liver, Lung, Male, Muscles, Ovary, Sheep, Skin Physiological Phenomena, Spleen, Swine, Testis, Thyroid Gland, Tongue, Urinary Bladder, Uterus

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      Three experimental techniques based on automatic swept-frequency network and impedance analysers were used to measure the dielectric properties of tissue in the frequency range 10 Hz to 20 GHz. The technique used in conjunction with the impedance analyser is described. Results are given for a number of human and animal tissues, at body temperature, across the frequency range, demonstrating that good agreement was achieved between measurements using the three pieces of equipment. Moreover, the measured values fall well within the body of corresponding literature data.

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