Understanding the mechanisms of kidney stone formation, development patterns and associated pathological features are gaining importance due to an increase in the prevalence of the disease and diversity in the presentation of the stone composition. Based on the microstructural characteristics of kidney stones, it may be possible to explain the differences in the pathogenesis of pure and mixed types of stones. In this study, the microstructure and distribution of mineral components of kidney stones of different mineralogy (pure and mixed types) were analyzed. The intact stones removed from patients were investigated using synchrotron radiation X-ray computed microtomography (SR-μCT) and the tomography slice images were reconstructed representing the density and structure distribution at various elevation planes. Infrared (IR) spectroscopes, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to confirm the bulk mineral composition in the thin section stones. Observations revealed differences in the micro-morphology of the kidney stones with similar composition in the internal 3-D structure. Calcium oxalate monohydrate stones showed well-organised layering patterns, while uric acid stones showed lower absorption signals with homogenous inner structure. Distinct mineral phases in the mixed types were identified based on the differential absorption rates. The 3-D quantitative analysis of internal porosity and spatial variation between nine different types of stones were compared. The diversity among the microstructure of similar and different types of stones shows that the stone formation is complex and may be governed by both physiological and micro-environmental factors. These factors may predispose a few towards crystal aggregation and stone growth, while, in others the crystals may not establish stable attachment and/or growth.