The transition-metal-catalyzed functionalization of C-H bonds is a powerful method for generating carbon-carbon bonds. Although significant advances to this field have been reported during the past decade, many challenges remain. First, most of the methods are substrate-specific and thus cannot be generalized. Second, conversions of unactivated (i.e., not benzylic or alpha to heteroatom) sp(3) C-H bonds to C-C bonds are rare, with most examples limited to t-butyl groups, a conversion that is inherently simple because there are no beta-hydrogens that can be eliminated. Finally, the palladium, rhodium, and ruthenium catalysts routinely used for the conversion of C-H bonds to C-C bonds are expensive. Catalytically active metals that are cheaper and less exotic (e.g., copper, iron, and manganese) are rarely used. This Account describes our attempts to provide solutions to these three problems. We have developed a general method for directing-group-containing arene arylation by aryl iodides. Using palladium acetate as the catalyst, we arylated anilides, benzamides, benzoic acids, benzylamines, and 2-substituted pyridine derivatives under nearly identical conditions. We have also developed a method for the palladium-catalyzed auxiliary-assisted arylation of unactivated sp(3) C-H bonds. This procedure allows for the beta-arylation of carboxylic acid derivatives and the gamma-arylation of amine derivatives. Furthermore, copper catalysis can be used to mediate the arylation of acidic arene C-H bonds (i.e., those with pK(a) values <35 in DMSO). Using a copper iodide catalyst in combination with a base and a phenanthroline ligand, we successfully arylated electron-rich and electron-deficient heterocycles and electron-poor arenes possessing at least two electron-withdrawing groups. The reaction exhibits unusual regioselectivity: arylation occurs at the most hindered position. This copper-catalyzed method supplements the well-known C-H activation/borylation methodology, in which functionalization usually occurs at the least hindered position. We also describe preliminary investigations to determine the mechanisms of these transformations. We anticipate that other transition metals, including iron, nickel, cobalt, and silver, will also be able to facilitate deprotonation/arylation reaction sequences.