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      Relationship between Glomerular Filtration Rate and the Prevalence of Metabolic Abnormalities: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

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          Abstract

          Background and Aims: National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) guidelines recommend that all people with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup> undergo evaluation for anaemia and metabolic bone disease. We aim to report the prevalence of metabolic complications in adults with low GFR. Methods: Analysis of 15,802 non-institutionalised adult participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III), a cross-sectional population-based survey conducted in the United States between 1986 and 1994. Renal function was estimated according the modification of diet in renal disease equation 7 (MDRD GFR), the Cockcroft-Gault formula and by the serum creatinine cut-off points described by Couchoud and colleagues. Haemoglobin <110 g/l occurred in 42.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 28.3–56.0] of patients with MDRD GFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup> [stage 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD)] and 3.5% (95% CI 2.4–4.7) of patients with MDRD GFR between 30 and 60 ml/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup> (stage 4–5 CKD). Corresponding prevalences for calcium <2.15 mmol/l were 8.2 (95% CI 1.6–14.8) and 3.4 (95% CI 1.7–5.2); for phosphate >1.6 mmol/l, 15.1 (95% CI 5.0–25.3) and 0.3 (95% CI 0–0.6); and for bicarbonate <23 mmol/l, 32.7 (95% CI 19.6–45.9) and 5.7 (95% CI 3.3–8.2), respectively. Similar results were obtained when patients were categorised by the Cockcroft-Gault formula or Couchoud’s cut-off points. Conclusions: The prevalence of complications in stage 3 CKD is low. These data do not support the recommendation for routine screening for metabolic complications of renal insufficiency in adults seen in primary care settings whose GFR exceeds 30 ml/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>.

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          Calibration and random variation of the serum creatinine assay as critical elements of using equations to estimate glomerular filtration rate.

          Equations using serum creatinine level, age, sex, and other patient characteristics often are used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in both clinical practice and research studies. However, the critical dependence of these equations on serum creatinine assay calibration often is overlooked, and the reproducibility of estimated GFR is rarely discussed. We address these issues in frozen samples from 212 Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study participants and 342 Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) participants assayed for serum creatinine level a second time during November 2000. Variation in serum creatinine level was assessed in 1,919 NHANES III participants who had serum creatinine measured on two visits a median of 17 days apart. Linear regression was used to compare estimates. Calibration of serum creatinine varied substantially across laboratories and time. Data indicate that serum creatinine assays on the same samples were 0.23 mg/dL higher in the NHANES III than MDRD study. Data from the College of American Pathologists suggest that a difference of this magnitude across laboratories is not unusual. Conversely, serum creatinine assays an average of 2 weeks apart have better precision (SD of percentage of difference in estimated GFR, 15%; 90% of estimates within 21%). Errors in calibration make little difference in estimating severely decreased GFR (<30 mL/min/1.73 m2), but result in progressively larger differences at higher GFRs. Both clinical and research use of serum creatinine or equations to estimate GFR require knowledge of the calibration of the serum creatinine assay. Copyright 2002 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.
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            Changes in serum calcium, phosphate, and PTH and the risk of death in incident dialysis patients: a longitudinal study.

            Elevated bone mineral parameters have been associated with mortality in dialysis patients. There are conflicting data about calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and mortality and few data about changes in bone mineral parameters over time. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1007 incident hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients. We examined longitudinal changes in bone mineral parameters and whether their associations with mortality were independent of time on dialysis, inflammation, and comorbidity. Serum calcium, phosphate, and calcium-phosphate product (CaP) increased in these patients between baseline and 6 months (P<0.001) and then remained stable. Serum PTH decreased over the first year (P<0.001). In Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for inflammation, comorbidity, and other confounders, the highest quartile of phosphate was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.57 (1.07-2.30) using both baseline and time-dependent values. The highest quartiles of calcium, CaP, and PTH were associated with mortality in time-dependent models but not in those using baseline values. The lowest quartile of PTH was associated with an HR of 0.65 (0.44-0.98) in the time-dependent model with 6-month lag analysis. We conclude that high levels of phosphate both at baseline and over follow-up are associated with mortality in incident dialysis patients. High levels of calcium, CaP, and PTH are associated with mortality immediately preceding an event. Promising new interventions need to be rigorously tested in clinical trials for their ability to achieve normalization of bone mineral parameters and reduce deaths of dialysis patients.
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              Albuminuria and renal insufficiency prevalence guides population screening: results from the NHANES III.

              A number of screening criteria, applied either at a single point in time or serially, can be used for the purpose of identifying individuals at risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This study focused on two such criteria measured on a single occasion, proteinuria and renal insufficiency, and examined their prevalence in a sample representative of the adult U.S. non-institutionalized population. Such knowledge guides the utility of population screening to prevent ESRD. The prevalence of albuminuria (microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria from a random urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio) and renal insufficiency [glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated from serum creatinine] was determined in different age categories in various adult screening groups in the cross-sectional Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). A total of 14,622 adult participants were included in the analysis. In the general population, 8.3% and 1.0% of participants demonstrated microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria, respectively. To identify one case of albuminuria, one would need to screen three persons with diabetes mellitus, seven non-diabetic hypertensive persons, or six persons over the age of 60. When albuminuria and renal insufficiency were considered together, it was clear that these tests were identifying different segments of the population; 37% of participants with a GFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 demonstrated no albuminuria. Non-albuminuric renal insufficiency was most evident in the ages of 60 to 79; 34% of diabetics, and 63% of non-diabetic hypertensives with a GFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 demonstrated no albuminuria. Albuminuria is prevalent, and when considered together, screening tests of albuminuria and renal insufficiency measured on a single occasion identify different segments of the population. The prevalence of albuminuria and renal insufficiency in populations of interest should be considered, as this knowledge has implications for the effectiveness of screening.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2007
                March 2007
                07 March 2007
                : 105
                : 4
                : c178-c184
                Affiliations
                aDepartments of Medicine, and Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., bDepartment of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S., and cDepartments of Medicine, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ont., Canada
                Article
                100489 Nephron Clin Pract 2007;105:c178–c184
                10.1159/000100489
                17347576
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, References: 38, Pages: 1
                Categories
                Original Paper

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