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      Evaluation of negative-pressure wound therapy for patients with diabetic foot ulcers: systematic review and meta-analysis

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          The aim of this study was to perform an updated systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the clinical efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs).


          We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid, and Chinese Biological Medicine databases up to June 30, 2016. We also manually searched the articles from reference lists of the retrieved articles, which used the NPWT system in studies of vacuum-assisted closure therapy. Studies were identified and selected, and two independent reviewers extracted data from the studies.


          A total of eleven randomized controlled trials, which included a total of 1,044 patients, were selected from 691 identified studies. Compared with standard dressing changes, NPWT had a higher rate of complete healing of ulcers (relative risk, 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24–1.76; P<0.001), shorter healing time (mean difference, −8.07; 95% CI: −13.70– −2.45; P=0.005), greater reduction in ulcer area (mean difference, 12.18; 95% CI: 8.50–15.86; P<0.00001), greater reduction in ulcer depth (mean difference, 40.82; 95% CI: 35.97–45.67; P<0.00001), fewer amputations (relative risk, 0.31; 95% CI: 0.15–0.62; P=0.001), and no effect on the incidence of treatment-related adverse effects (relative risk, 1.12; 95% CI: 0.66–1.89; P=0.68). Meanwhile, many analyses showed that the NPWT was more cost-effective than standard dressing changes.


          These results indicate that NPWT is efficacious, safe, and cost-effective in treating DFUs.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Negative pressure wound therapy after partial diabetic foot amputation: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial.

          Diabetic foot wounds, particularly those secondary to amputation, are very complex and difficult to treat. We investigated whether negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) improves the proportion and rate of wound healing after partial foot amputation in patients with diabetes. We enrolled 162 patients into a 16-week, 18-centre, randomised clinical trial in the USA. Inclusion criteria consisted of partial foot amputation wounds up to the transmetatarsal level and evidence of adequate perfusion. Patients who were randomly assigned to NPWT (n=77) received treatment with dressing changes every 48 h. Control patients (n=85) received standard moist wound care according to consensus guidelines. NPWT was delivered through the Vacuum Assisted Closure (VAC) Therapy System. Wounds were treated until healing or completion of the 112-day period of active treatment. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study has been registered with , number NCT00224796. More patients healed in the NPWT group than in the control group (43 [56%] vs 33 [39%], p=0.040). The rate of wound healing, based on the time to complete closure, was faster in the NPWT group than in controls (p=0.005). The rate of granulation tissue formation, based on the time to 76-100% formation in the wound bed, was faster in the NPWT group than in controls (p=0.002). The frequency and severity of adverse events (of which the most common was wound infection) were similar in both treatment groups. NPWT delivered by the VAC Therapy System seems to be a safe and effective treatment for complex diabetic foot wounds, and could lead to a higher proportion of healed wounds, faster healing rates, and potentially fewer re-amputations than standard care.
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            Burden of diabetic foot ulcers for medicare and private insurers.

            To estimate the annual, per-patient incremental burden of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs).
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              Comparison of negative pressure wound therapy using vacuum-assisted closure with advanced moist wound therapy in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

              The purpose of this study was to evaluate safety and clinical efficacy of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) compared with advanced moist wound therapy (AMWT) to treat foot ulcers in diabetic patients. This multicenter randomized controlled trial enrolled 342 patients with a mean age of 58 years; 79% were male. Complete ulcer closure was defined as skin closure (100% reepithelization) without drainage or dressing requirements. Patients were randomly assigned to either NPWT (vacuum-assisted closure) or AMWT (predominately hydrogels and alginates) and received standard off-loading therapy as needed. The trial evaluated treatment until day 112 or ulcer closure by any means. Patients whose wounds achieved ulcer closure were followed at 3 and 9 months. Each study visit included closure assessment by wound examination and tracings. A greater proportion of foot ulcers achieved complete ulcer closure with NPWT (73 of 169, 43.2%) than with AMWT (48 of 166, 28.9%) within the 112-day active treatment phase (P = 0.007). The Kaplan-Meier median estimate for 100% ulcer closure was 96 days (95% CI 75.0-114.0) for NPWT and not determinable for AMWT (P = 0.001). NPWT patients experienced significantly (P = 0.035) fewer secondary amputations. The proportion of home care therapy days to total therapy days for NPWT was 9,471 of 10,579 (89.5%) and 12,210 of 12,810 (95.3%) for AMWT. In assessing safety, no significant difference between the groups was observed in treatment-related complications such as infection, cellulitis, and osteomyelitis at 6 months. NPWT appears to be as safe as and more efficacious than AMWT for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                18 April 2017
                : 13
                : 533-544
                [1 ]School of Nursing, Nanchang University
                [2 ]Department of Endocrinology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Chao-zhu He, School of Nursing, Nan Chang University, Ba yi Road, Nanchang, Jiangxi, 330006, China, Tel +86 791 8636 2043, Email 1028970010@ 123456qq.com
                © 2017 Liu et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

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