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      Negative Growth Effects of Ciglitazone on Kidney Interstitial Fibroblasts: Role of PPAR-γ

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          Background/Aims: Ciglitazone and other thiazolidinedione compounds are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) ligands and improve renal function in diabetic nephropathy independent of blood glucose control. Because interstitial fibroblasts and glomerular mesangial cells are important cell types affected in diabetic nephropathy, the major aim of the present study was to examine the effect of ciglitazone on apoptosis and growth of renal interstitial fibroblasts (NRKs) and glomerular mesangial cells (MMCs). Methods: The effect of ciglitazone on apoptosis and cell growth of cultured NRKs and MMCs was done using DNA fragmentation and MTS cell-growth assays, respectively. The potential role of PPAR-γ in these two cell types was examined by reporter gene analysis. Results: Ciglitazone induced caspase-dependent apoptosis of both NRKs and MMCs and caused a significant decrease in cell growth. Other PPAR-γ ligands also mimicked this effect. Interestingly, ciglitazone did not activate the PPRE-TK-CAT (peroxisome proliferator regulatory element, a thymidine kinase promoter and a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene) when transfected into NRKs, suggesting that ciglitazone does not activate the endogenous PPAR-γ system in NRKs. On the other hand, ciglitazone activated the endogenous PPAR-γ in MMCs. Conclusions: Apoptotic and negative growth effects of ciglitazone, in NRKs, are not mediated through PPAR-γ. The thiazolidinediones have important cellular effects on renal interstitial fibroblasts and glomerular mesangial cells that may be therapeutically useful in non-diabetic renal disease.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Growth, adipose, brain, and skin alterations resulting from targeted disruption of the mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta(delta).

          To determine the physiological roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta (PPARbeta), null mice were constructed by targeted disruption of the ligand binding domain of the murine PPARbeta gene. Homozygous PPARbeta-null term fetuses were smaller than controls, and this phenotype persisted postnatally. Gonadal adipose stores were smaller, and constitutive mRNA levels of CD36 were higher, in PPARbeta-null mice than in controls. In the brain, myelination of the corpus callosum was altered in PPARbeta-null mice. PPARbeta was not required for induction of mRNAs involved in epidermal differentiation induced by O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). The hyperplastic response observed in the epidermis after TPA application was significantly greater in the PPARbeta-null mice than in controls. Inflammation induced by TPA in the skin was lower in wild-type mice fed sulindac than in similarly treated PPARbeta-null mice. These results are the first to provide in vivo evidence of significant roles for PPARbeta in development, myelination of the corpus callosum, lipid metabolism, and epidermal cell proliferation.
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            Prostacyclin-mediated activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta in colorectal cancer.

             Eric Tan,  R Dubois,  R. Gupta (2000)
            There is evidence from both genetic and pharmacologic studies to suggest that the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme plays a causal role in the development of colorectal cancer. However, little is known about the identity or role of the eicosanoid receptor pathways activated by COX-derived prostaglandins (PG). We previously have reported that COX-2-derived prostacyclin promotes embryo implantation in the mouse uterus via activation of the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) delta. In light of the recent finding that PPARdelta is a target of beta-catenin transactivation, it is important to determine whether this signaling pathway is operative during the development of colorectal cancer. Analysis of PPARdelta mRNA in matched normal and tumor samples revealed that expression of PPARdelta, similar to COX-2, is up-regulated in colorectal carcinomas. In situ hybridization studies demonstrate that PPARdelta is expressed in normal colon and localized to the epithelial cells at the very tips of the mucosal glands. In contrast, expression of PPARdelta mRNA in colorectal tumors was more widespread with increased levels in transformed epithelial cells. Analysis of PPARdelta and COX-2 mRNA in serial sections suggested they were colocalized to the same region within a tumor. Finally, transient transfection assays established that endogenously synthesized prostacyclin (PGI(2)) could serve as a ligand for PPARdelta. In addition, the stable PGI(2) analog, carbaprostacyclin, and a synthetic PPARdelta agonist induced transactivation of endogenous PPARdelta in human colon carcinoma cells. We conclude from these observations that PPARdelta, similar to COX-2, is aberrantly expressed in colorectal tumors and that endogenous PPARdelta is transcriptionally responsive to PGI(2). However, the functional consequence of PPARdelta activation in colon carcinogenesis still needs to be determined.
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              Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs): novel therapeutic targets in renal disease.

              Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs): Novel therapeutic targets in renal disease. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors. PPARs play an important role in the general transcriptional control of numerous cellular processes, including lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, cell cycle progression, cell differentiation, inflammation and extracellular matrix remodeling. Three PPAR isoforms, designated PPARalpha, PPARbeta and PPARgamma, have been cloned and are differentially expressed in several tissues including the kidney. PPARalpha primary regulates lipid metabolism and modulates inflammation. PPARalpha is the molecular target of the hypolipidemic fibrates including bezafibrate and clofibrate. PPARbeta participates in embryonic development, implantation and bone formation. PPARgamma is a key factor in adipogenesis and also plays an important role in insulin sensitivity, cell cycle regulation and cell differentiation. Antidiabetic thiazolidinediones (TZDs) such as troglitazone and rosiglitazone are specific ligands of PPARgamma, and this interaction is responsible for the insulin-sensitizing and hypoglycemic effect of these drugs. The kidney has been shown to differentially express all PPAR isoforms. PPARalpha is predominantly expressed in proximal tubules and medullary thick ascending limbs, while PPARgamma is expressed in medullary collecting ducts, pelvic urothelium and glomerular mesangial cells. PPARbeta is ubiquitously expressed at low levels in all segments of nephron. Accumulating data has begun to emerge suggesting physiological and pathophysiological roles of PPARs in several tissues including the kidney. The availability of PPAR-selective agonists and antagonists may provide a new approach to modulate the renal response to diseases including glomerulonephritis, glomerulosclerosis and diabetic nephropathy.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                24 April 2003
                : 26
                : 1
                : 2-9
                Department of Physiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich., USA
                69764 Kidney Blood Press Res 2003;26:2–9
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 5, References: 35, Pages: 8
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                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Apoptosis, PPAR-γ, NRK-49F, Ciglitazone, Thiazolidinedione, Mesangial cells


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