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      Salvianolic Acid A Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory and Antiarthritic Effects via Inhibiting NF-κB and p38/MAPK Pathways

      1 , 1 , 1

      Drug Design, Development and Therapy

      Dove

      Salvianolic acid A, Osteoarthritis, MMPs, NF-κB pathway

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          Osteoarthritis (OA), a chronic joint disease, combines with massive inflammation and plays a vital role in cartilage degeneration. The main strategy in clinic is controlling inflammation, thereby treating osteoarthritis. Salvianolic acid A (SAA) is a type of phenolic acid, derived from a traditional chinese herbal medicine Danshen that is extensively used clinically.

          Methods and Results

          We observed the anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic effects of SAA in IL-1β-stimulated cells. We found that SAA evidently decreased the expression of mainly inflammatory factors, exerted the remarkable effects of anti-inflammation and anti-arthritis. Furthermore, SAA inhibited the expression of Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP1, MMP13), and ADAMTS-5 and raised the synthesis of collagen II and aggrecan. Additionally, the results indicated that SAA gave rise to the effects by down-regulation of NF-κB and p38/MAPK pathways.

          Discussion

          Our study demonstrates that SAA may be a promising anti-inflammatory for the treatment of OA in clinic.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Cartilage damage in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis--two unequal siblings.

          Cartilage damage is a key feature of degenerative joint disorders-primarily osteoarthritis (OA)-and chronic inflammatory joint diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Substantial progress has been made towards understanding the mechanisms that lead to degradation of the cartilage matrix in either condition, which ultimately results in the progressive remodelling of affected joints. The available data have shown that the molecular steps in cartilage matrix breakdown overlap in OA and RA. However, they have also, to a great extent, changed our view of the roles of cartilage in the pathogenesis of these disorders. In OA, cartilage loss occurs as part of a complex programme that resembles aspects of embryonic bone formation through endochondral ossification. In RA, early cartilage damage is a key trigger of cellular reactions in the synovium. In a proposed model of RA as a site-specific manifestation of a systemic autoimmune disorder, early cartilage damage in the context of immune activation leads to a specific cellular response within articular joints that could explain not only the organ specificity of RA, but also the chronic nature and perpetuation of the disease.
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            Osteoarthritis: diagnosis and treatment.

             Keith Sinusas (2012)
            Osteoarthritis is a common degenerative disorder of the articular cartilage associated with hypertrophic bone changes. Risk factors include genetics, female sex, past trauma, advancing age, and obesity. The diagnosis is based on a history of joint pain worsened by movement, which can lead to disability in activities of daily living. Plain radiography may help in the diagnosis, but laboratory testing usually does not. Pharmacologic treatment should begin with acetaminophen and step up to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Exercise is a useful adjunct to treatment and has been shown to reduce pain and disability. The supplements glucosamine and chondroitin can be used for moderate to severe osteoarthritis when taken in combination. Corticosteroid injections provide inexpensive, short-term (four to eight weeks) relief of osteoarthritic flare-ups of the knee, whereas hyaluronic acid injections are more expensive but can maintain symptom improvement for longer periods. Total joint replacement of the hip, knee, or shoulder is recommended for patients with chronic pain and disability despite maximal medical therapy.
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              MMPs and ADAMTSs in intervertebral disc degeneration.

              Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is the most common diagnosis in patients with low back pain, a leading cause of musculoskeletal disability worldwide. The major components of extracellular matrix (ECM) within the discs are type II collagen (Col II) and aggrecan. Excessive destruction of ECM, especially loss of Col II and aggrecan, plays a critical role in promoting the occurrence and development of IDD. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTSs) are primary enzymes that degrade collagens and aggrecan. There is a large and growing body of evidence that many members of MMPs and ADAMTSs are highly expressed in degenerative IVD tissue and cells, and are closely involved in ECM breakdown and the process of disc degeneration. In contrast, targeting these enzymes has shown promise for promoting ECM repair and mitigating disc regeneration. In the current review, after a brief description regarding the biology of MMPs and ADAMTSs, we mainly focus on their expression profiles, roles and therapeutic potential in IDD. A greater understanding of the catabolic pathways involved in IDD will help to develop potential prophylactic or regenerative biological treatment for degenerative disc disease in the future.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                DDDT
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                08 May 2020
                2020
                : 14
                : 1771-1778
                Affiliations
                [1 ]The Second People’s Hospital of Nantong , Nantong, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Lei Ji Email jileiyaoyao@163.com
                Article
                235857
                10.2147/DDDT.S235857
                7217308
                © 2020 Feng et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 5, References: 29, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                nf-κb pathway, mmps, osteoarthritis, salvianolic acid a

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